Thursday, November 21, 2019

History and Political Science; A Response to Historical Cases Essay

History and Political Science; A Response to Historical Cases - Essay Example Of particular interest is to understand the implications of the Pericles’ oration (Thucydides 34) with respect to what is known of Athens. In evaluating Pericles’ speech, it is imperative to decipher the underpinning points in the speech, as depicted by Thucydides (pp 34-46). First, Pericles begins by acknowledging the need to hold ceremonies for those who dead for the country. He proceeds to assert that all that had happened was necessary. He was in line with the law, as well as the democracy requirements. In elucidating his point, he pays tribute to the ancestors, acknowledging them for creating a worth-celebrating history for the Athenians. He cites how the empire and its possession would have been without the sacrifice of the ancestors and that it was only justified for him to uphold the legacy. Pericles presents Athens as exceptional, in terms of its laws, justice, social equality, mobility and inclusivity of migrants, and that everyone had an equal opportunity to serve the nation. The aspect of Athens to offer social refreshment, such as games is not also overlooked. He affirms Athenian determination to shun all the challenges, as well as respecting the neighbors. He eventually justifies the point that the fallen men should not be the cause of any consolation. Instead, such a point brings comfort to the Athenian community. The crucial question is whether Pericles’ insight holds any validity. In particular, does Athens fit into the doctrine of exceptionalism, as presented? Moreover, is Pericles’ point about the fallen justified? In my view, whereas there are certain aspects of exceptionalism that could be justified about the historical Athenian society, others cannot. For instance, it is agreeable that the ancestors had a crucial role in creating history for posterity, considering that imperialism was the order of the time. The affirmation of respect of law and democracy also reflect the historical nature of Athens. This is beca use Athens historical government is widely cited as the mother or even the correlate of the sophisticated and desired contemporary democracy. Indeed, one avenue of viewing at Pericles’ forefather reference could act as a base the role which Athens played in Greek history. Perhaps he was referring to the growth of the government of Athens as well as the role which the forefathers played. Pericles next statement is that the city of Athens was great and served as a symbol of inspiration as the pioneer of true democracy (Halsall 39). Thucydides uses parallelism whereby Pericles talks of Athenian s’ reputation compared to other armed forces, as well as the Athenian self belief. However, the theme of imperialism cannot be left out of his speech. One questions whether this could also be an aspect of exceptionalism. Doesn’t it contravene the affirmation to respect the autonomy of the neighbors? I infer that whereas Pericles stand reflect the interest of the Athenians, i t is advanced on the basis of nationalism, which can be dismissed as a thesis of societal selfishness. Response to part two: Robert, the Monk's account of Pope Urban II's call to crusade During the 11th century, when states like France and Britain had not emerged, Christianity united the states of Europe. All European states took part in religious wars against Muslims in what was known as the Crusades. Both Christians and Muslims committed atrocities against human beings although each side claimed to be fighting for a just course. At the

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