Saturday, August 31, 2019

The Expectancy Theory of Motivation

The Expectancy Theory of Motivation The Expectancy Theory of Motivation Mr. Jeffrey Kiger Western Governor’s University LET 1 Task 1 Abstract The Expectancy Theory of Motivation was developed by Victor Vroom in 1964. The theory is not without its critics however, most of the evidence is supportive. The Expectancy Theory helps to explain the motivations of employees in both a positive and negative ways. A lot of people in the workforce feel this way about their jobs or careers. Although they have probably never thought much about why they feel this way or asked themselves â€Å"what can I do to overcome these feelings? The Expectancy Theory of Motivation There are 3 relationships that are associated with the expectancy theory of motivation. The first relationship is effort-performance, which is the perception by employees that a certain amount of effort will lead to an acceptable performance standard. The second relationship that this theory explains is that individuals believ e the desirable outcomes are the result of performing at a certain level. The final relationship that is related to the expectancy theory of motivation concerns the correlation between rewards and personal goals.This part explains to what degree a company’s rewards satisfy an individual’s personal needs or goals. The relationship also stresses the importance of those possible rewards for the employees. The employees seem to have a number of issues that they need to overcome in order for them to be successful with the new production process. It seems like Supervisor A is having trouble communicating and motivating with his team. All 3 of the Expectancy Theory relationships seem to be prevalent in this situation. Some of the team members don’t think that they can physically do the job.A portion of the employees feel that the new production system is too demanding for their abilities. The company needs to re-examine the processes, break them down to more basic step s, and then spend a little time retraining the production teams. The employees will then see that they can meet the production goals. Some of the other employees don’t want to do the job, they can meet the production goals but they have decided that it isn’t important enough to do so. They have determined that the effort isn’t worth it because other employees get paid the same amount even though they don’t reach the same production goals.They haven’t understood the actual relationship of performance to reward. They are putting the focus on the other employees and forgetting about themselves. The company needs to address this conflict in order to have successful production teams. The last group of employees do not think that the rewards for achieving the company’s production goals will mean much to them at the end of the week. They are obviously concerned about their personal goals of making as much money as possible each week. They are getti ng the reward for their effort toward the company’s production goals however, it’s not enough.These employees really have to make a decision concerning the reward versus their personal goals. In my opinion, the company needs to do 4 things to fix the issues at hand. First of all, the company needs to understand why the production goals are not reached and find solutions so that the employee can be successful. Secondly, they need to do a better job of communicating the production goals and standards. The third item that needs to change is the accountability of the employee to the production goals. Last of all, the company could even change the production levels that must be met to receive a bonus.The possibility of reaching the goals and receiving the reward/bonus will help the employee see the achievement of the performance reward relationship. Appendix Each Appendix appears on its own page. Footnotes 1Complete APA style formatting information may be found in the Publi cation Manual. Table 1 Type the table text here in italics; start a new page for each table [Insert table here] Figure Captions Figure 1. Caption of figure [Figures – note that this page does not have the manuscript header and page number]

Friday, August 30, 2019

Christopher Nolan

No one has had as impressive of a career as Christopher Jonathan James Nolan. His films have earned $3. 3 billion at the global box office, and the total is still growing. This British/American screenwriter, director and producer’s most popular films include The Dark Knight (2008), Inception (2010) and The Dark Knight Rises (2012). Remarkably, many critics have lined up as well, embracing both Nolan’s more offbeat productions, like Memento (2000) and The Prestige (2006), and his blockbusters (Price and Dawson, 2009). Nolan is now routinely considered one of the most accomplished living filmmakers.This essay will analyze the types of techniques he has used to create heart-stopping films, and will more specifically look at his methods used in creating Insomnia (2002), his first studio film. I will also be analyzing the defaults in some of him major productions, and how his films can be improved. Despite his blockbuster hits, many critics fiercely dislike his work. They re gard it as intellectually shallow, dramatically clumsy, and technically unskilled (Price and Dawson, 2009). As far as I can tell, no popular filmmaker’s work of recent years has received such harsh criticism as Nolan has.People seem to disapprove of his continuity errors and patchy plots, but this severe attack on his films are probably due to his elevated reputation. Personally, I admire some of Nolan’s films and see him as an innovative filmmaker although critics sometimes believe his techniques are weak. His film history gives us an occasion to look at some issues about creativity and innovation in popular motion pictures. There are four main ways that a filmmaker can be innovative; by subject matter, themes, formal strategies and level of style (WordPress, 2011).Out of all four innovation techniques, Nolan seems to be lacking a level of style the most. This evidence can be found in Insomnia (2002), his first studio film; A Los Angeles detective and his partner come to an Alaskan town to investigate the murder of a teenage girl. While chasing a suspect in the fog, Dormer shoots his partner Hap and then lies about it, trying to pin the killing on the suspect. But the suspect who is a famous author who did kill the girl, knows what really happened. He pressures Dormer to cover for both of them by framing the girl’s boyfriend.Meanwhile, Dormer is undergoing scrutiny by Ellie, a young officer who idolizes him but who must investigate Hap’s death. And throughout it all, Dormer becomes bleary and disoriented because, the twenty-four-hour daylight won’t let him sleep. Nolan said at the time that what interested him in the script was the prospect of character subjectivity, â€Å"A big part of my interest in filmmaking is an interest in showing the audience a story through a character’s point of view. It’s interesting to try and do that and maintain a relatively natural look. This is because he wanted to keep the aud ience in Dormer’s head. Having already done that to an extent in Memento, he saw it as a logical way of presenting Dormer’s slow breakdown. But Nolan wanted to keep his work subjective and as a result chose to break up scenes with fragmentary flashes of the crime and of clues—painted nails, a necklace. Early in the film, Dormer is studying Kay Connell’s corpse, and we get flashes of the murder and its aftermath, the killer sprucing up the corpse. At first it seems that Dormer feels what happened by noticing clues on Kay’s body.But the film’s credits started with similar glimpses of the killing, as if from the killer’s point of view, and there’s an ambiguity about whether the images later are Dormer’s imaginative reconstruction, or reminders of the killer’s vision—establishing that uneasy link of cop and crook. Similarly, sudden cutting is used to introduce images that get clarified in the course of the film . At the start, we see blood seeping through threads, and then shots of hands carefully depositing blood on a fabric. Then we see shots of Dormer flying in to the crime scene.We learn in the course of the film that these are flashbacks to Dormer’s framing of another suspect back in Los Angeles. Once again, these images are more or less subjective, and they echo the killer’s patient tidying up. Nolan’s style seems to tie into rapid cutting passages. For example, Insomnia has over 3400 shots in its 111 minutes, making the average shot just under two seconds long (WordPress). This type of fast editing can suit bursts of mental imagery, but makes the dialogue hard to understand.In the scene in which Dormer and Hap arrive at the Alaskan police station as an example of the over-busy tempo that can come along with a style based in â€Å"intensified continuity. † In a seventy-second scene, there are 39 shots, so the average is about 1. 8 seconds—a pace typ ical of the film and of the intensified approach generally (Ressner, 2012). Apart from one exterior long-shot of the police station and four inserts of hands, the characters’ interplay is captured almost entirely in singles—that is, shots of only one actor.Out of the 34 shots of actors’ faces and upper bodies, 24 are singles (Ressner, 2012). Most of these serve to pick up individual lines of dialogue or characters’ reactions to other lines. Fast cutting scenes like this are not supposed to break up spatial orientation. In many of this movie’s scenes there are a couple of bumps in the eyeline-matching, but all in all the shot is continuous. As I watched the DVD commentary, Nolan explains that he tried to anchor the axis of action, around Dormer/Pacino, so the eyelines were consistent with his position.The scene’s development and the actors’ line readings are emphasized by the cutting. In contrast, the lighting and framing remain almost unchanged. The editing-driven approach to staging and shooting is clearly Nolan’s preference for many projects; he storyboards only the big action sequences. We can find this loose shooting and abrupt editing in most of Nolan’s films therefor they don’t seem to display innovative, or skilful visual style. I believe his chief areas of innovation are in theme and form. The thematic dimension is easy to see in his films.There’s the issue of uncertain identity, which becomes obvious in Memento and the Batman films. The lost-woman motif, from Leonard’s wife in Memento to Rachel in the two late Batman movies, gives Nolan’s films the recurring theme of vengeance. There is also the theme of the man doomed to solitude and unhappiness, always grieving. This obsessive circling around personal identity and the loss of a lover carries emotional conviction in most of Nolan’s current films and the success of these films owe a good deal to the perfo rmances of the actors such as Guy Pearce, Hugh Jackman, Christian Bale, and Leonardo DiCaprio.It can be argued that these psychological themes aren’t very original, especially in mystery-based plots, but the Batman films offer something fresher. The Dark Knight trilogy has attracted attention for its search to find real world significance in comic-book material. Many have objected that Superman, who has the power to redirect rivers, prevent asteroid collisions, and expose political corruption, devotes too much of his time to thwarting bank robbers (Price and Dawson, 2009).Nolan and his colleagues have sought to reply to this cliche by adding in plots of heists, fights, chases, explosions, kidnappings, ticking bombs, and pistols with sociopolitical problems. The Dark Knight mainly raises ideas about terrorism, torture, surveillance, and the need to keep the public in the dark about its heroes. It is easy to see that Nolan and his colleagues are undoubtedly giving the superhero genre a new importance in the film industry. Nolan’s innovations seem strongest in the area of narrative form. He’s fascinated by unusual storytelling strategies.Those aren’t developed at full stretch in Insomnia or the Dark Knight trilogy, but other films put them on display. In the Batman trilogy, subjectivity is put on hold. Nolan’s first two films reconcile subjectivity in more unusual ways; instead of expanding our range of knowledge to many characters, nearly the whole film is confined to what happens to one protagonist. Likewise, Memento confines us to a single protagonist and skips between his memories and immediate experiences; one series of incidents is presented as moving chronologically while another is presented in reverse order.While ambitious filmmakers are competing to create cliche narratives and complex films, Nolan raises the stakes by bringing breath-taking cinematic storytelling to life. His movies, unlike any other living filmmaker, are motivated through dreams and modernized with a blend of science fiction, fantasy and action pictures. Above all, the dream motivation allowed him to create unforgettable stories that are now embedded in the minds of millions of viewers.

Thursday, August 29, 2019

Asian people taking on non-typical or roles they are not characterized Essay

Asian people taking on non-typical or roles they are not characterized to in British cinema - Essay Example And that is what is the Asian Artists in England are aiming for; to craft their story and the performance in such a way that it entertains and touches the heart of the English community as much as it does of the Asian people. Asian directors are doing their best to bid for the mainstream. The year was 1986. A movie called ‘My beautiful Laundrette’ was released. Scripted by writer from Asian origin, Hanif Kureishi, the movie tells a story of the Asian community living in London [1]. It proved to be a commercially successful movie and gave inspiration to the upcoming Asian artists in England a hope to confidently launch their career move thinking that ‘mainstream’ is not out of their reach ((Korte and Sternber ,2004. pg. 49). help of his school friend Johnny, turns around the business of laundry. The story has all the issues that try to portray the Asian community like homosexuality , rebellious women, religious pressure, and an effort to adjust with the different culture. ((Korte and Sternber ,2004. pg..pg84). It talked about what was happening at that time with Asian origin people and how they were trying to break from the barriers of tradition by choosing to live the life of their own and taking their own decisions. ((Korte and Sternber ,2004. pg. 85). The film got a mixed response. Although it was received well by the audience, it was also criticized by some Asian audience and the critics saying that it misrepresented the Asian community and has given a negative shade to the Asian people ((Korte and Sternber ,2004. pg..85). But one thing was certain, the film of Asian origin got the entry in the ‘mainstream’. However, for the Asian artists, there was still long way to go and many

Wednesday, August 28, 2019

Affirmative action Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words - 1

Affirmative action - Assignment Example Despite this argument, affirmative action has been met by many different views. This paper essay gives an insight on the works written by Pojman and Dworkin on their perception of Affirmative Action. Pojman focused on the moral issue surrounding Affirmative action after the Supreme Court ruled some forms of reverse discrimination constitution (478). He both supports and rejects Affirmative action as he claims that it does carry some moral weight. Pojman examines seven arguments regarding Affirmative Action; first four negative and the next three positive while attempting to explain why Affirmative Action fails. Pojman scorns the compensation argument terming it a distorted notion of compensation (478). He argues that the United States government was not directly involved in slavery and much of the harm done on blacks was as an outcome of private discrimination. Pojman argues that setting quotas in skilled positions and preferential treatments in higher learning institution for Blacks is not the solution since there is no clarity on whether all blacks were harmed in the same way, unjustly harmed, or harmed more than poor whites (478). United States existence in the 17thand 18th century was deeply characterized with slavery and oppression of Blacks, Native Americans and other minority groups (Pojman 479). These groups of people had their land taken from them, provided unpaid labour, were subject to brutal punishments and were denied most of their fundamental rights was stated in the constitution. Pojman claims that the government was not directly involved, but the government gave this private sector the right of ownership over these people and did nothing when their constitutional rights were violated (480). Affirmative action merely offers a way to compensate the descendants for the offences done to their ancestors by neutralizing the competitive disadvantage that Africans Americans continue to suffer

Tuesday, August 27, 2019

Horse Fighting in Asia Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1750 words

Horse Fighting in Asia - Essay Example These fighting are conducted in stadiums or in the fields of different villages. Mostly, they are done in less populated areas. However in case of populated areas it is conducted on local road tracks, which may be harmful for citizens as well. That is why I have chosen this topic to study its context and history as well as analyzing it basis of how this game came into existence. 1.2 Horse fighting This sport is common in all parts of Asia. Horses are mainly used in fighting, kicking and biting in order to create entertainment and have a financial gain. This is mostly practiced in the countries which have more tourists each year. These people spend a lot to gain pleasure and try to earn money which leads to gambling on horse fighting. This practice is illegal one cannot harm other living being for entertainment or to have more money. There are many other ways to have these two things rather than conducting this sport. Horse fighting also involves a process and technique. Firstly, a ma re is binged by injection of hormones. Then she is taken out tied with roped and as well as padded for couple of minutes so that they can pick her scent. Then the two stallions are released and they start fighting with each other, while mare stands at a distance. It is continued for several minutes, horses keep on biting and kicking each other, unless and until one goes out of the ring. If one does not get out of ring, it can lead to death of any one. These fights are conducted on daily basis and lead to bloody wounds on the body of horses every time when they enter in a race. This is very unhealthy and risky game for their life. It have been noted that most of the horses die after the fight or they are slaughtered for meat and are shot dead if they are unable to do fighting (Amschler Wolfgang, 1935). Horses are graceful, social and intelligent creatures that don’t fight among each other. Studies indicated that when horses are shown care and are given safe and healthy environ ment, in result they become a strong bond with human beings. They can help in many social activities. However, involving horses in fight with each other is against the nature. History is past, today in this modern world one should try to make best use of all resources rather than wasting them. Training and development Horses are trained for fights on the basis of a manual of war among horses which was written by Hittite horse master in 1350 BC. This was one of the earliest manual written on horses and is in practice till today. The most difficult part in training horses is to overcome its natural instinct to flee the smell of blood, from noise and confusion related to combat. It is also made to learn unusual movement of humans and fighting with the other horse. They are made to hurt other horse though kicking, biting and striking thus they are made to serve as a weapon. It is important to develop agility and balance in the horse while fighting with the other. So in this training and development program horses are made to learn all acts of fighting (Matt Van Hoven, 2008). 1.3 Historical perspective and analysis Horse fighting is a sport since 500 years back and is mainly done by Indonesia, China, South Korea, and Philippines. It is a

Monday, August 26, 2019

Insurance in the GCC Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2250 words

Insurance in the GCC - Research Paper Example Although economic growth in this region is very high, the insurance sector has fallen behind drastically. According to him, the opportunities for different local and international insurance company are very high, which will be accounted for increased competition, and also a challenging business environment (Ashcroft, 2013). There is also an expectation that the region’s insurance sector will also mature structurally in way of going forwards. Apart from this, in line with positive regulatory developments, there are constant efforts by some of the key insurance players towards achieving greater operational scale and functional efficiency. These companies want to take the first mover advantage. There are huge amount of opportunity in the GCC Insurance sector with the bigger organizations in the insurance market getting more and larger in terms of operational volume as well as the penetration in different parts of the world, and in that way leading to the marginalization of smalle r companies. The GCC Insurance Industry Outlook: With the untapped open market in place many leading insurance sectors are now looking forward for setting up their business unit in GCC. The opportunity of untapped market is huge and therefore every organization is looking for taking the â€Å"first mover advantage†. According to the report published by Alpen Capital (2013), the projective growth rate of the insurance industry in the Gulf region is 18.1% (CAGR) between the time periods of 2012-2017. According to their estimation the market value of the insurance industry in the gulf region will reach up to us $ 37.5 billion. Out of this, the life insurance segment will contribute US $ 2.4 billion and non life will account for US $ 35.1 billion. The growth in the non life part is more due to strong impetus of construction and infrastructure industries. An enormous portion of oil revenues in the GCC countries is being moved to the development of the non-oil segment in order to s upport the economic diversification of the sector. As a result, there is strong momentum in the construction sector. This momentum will help the region’s non-life insurance segment. Moreover, higher infiltrations of medical insurance and constant growth in the new vehicle sales are also likely to help the growth in the motor insurance sector which in turn will aid the segment’s growth. The rate of insurance penetration in GCC is also likely to go up from 1.1% in 2012 to 2% by the end of 2017. The industry growth rate is comfortably exceeds the pace of GDP expansion in this sector, Non-life insurance growth in the line of increasing infrastructure development and more vehicle sales, is likely to surge from 0.9% to 1.9% during the period, and will be the key behind the growth of this sector in the GCC region. UAE (United Arab Emirates) and Saudi Arabia are the two largest insurance market at present in GCC; the trend is such that there is every possibility that Saudi Ara bia may overtake the United Arab Emirates (UAE) as the largest insurance market in GCC with coming years. (Alpen Capital, 2013). Key Growth factor of Insurance Industry

Sunday, August 25, 2019

National Crisis Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2750 words

National Crisis - Essay Example After having witnessed what has befallen their country, the United States began to take terrorism more seriously that it had ever before. Here was an enemy without face that directly challenged the might of the country responsible for turning the two world wars in the favor of a free world. The American Heritage Dictionary defines terrorism as â€Å"the unlawful use or threatened use of force or violence by a person or an organized group against people or property with the intention of intimidating or coercing societies or governments, often for ideological or political reasons†. Everybody now knew what the word truly meant especially what the term ‘force’ implied. The United States spared no time in hunting down the members of the al-Qaeda. It began in Afghanistan where the Taliban regime proudly sponsored the extremists. Why you ask? According to †¦, â€Å"one man’s terrorist may be another man’s freedom fighter†. The country then proceeded with dismantling the Saddam Hussein regime whose reports indicate to be a major violator of human rights. (Combs, 2007; Gunaratna, 2003). The Iraqi struggle has been the focal point of criticism of the Bush administration. The war waged not on the battlefields of Iraq and Afghanistan alone. It was also being fought in the mind and hearts of every American (Pillar, 2004; North O., Horn S, Horn S.A., 2004). After 6 years of the event, the U.S. is now split between those who considers it best that the country changes its mode from search-and-destroy to build-and-move on and those who deem it proper that the fight must carry on. They voice out their concerns in position papers, placards and editorials. In this paper, we will be analyzing two editorials whose content has much to say regarding what should be done now 5 years after the event. The purpose of this paper is not so much as to

Saturday, August 24, 2019

Should Cultural Anthropology Stop Trying to Model Itself as a Science Essay

Should Cultural Anthropology Stop Trying to Model Itself as a Science - Essay Example This paper illustrates articles by two schools of thought that seem to offer conflicting ideas on the question of cultural anthropology modeling itself as a science. This is because humanities and sciences tend to appear as though they compete for validity, as though, the two disciplines are two opposite extremes. In this regard, Geertz bears in mind that cultural anthropology is best done through interpretation, the humanities way, while Carneiro is of the view that studies should be done through studying the causes and effects. Carneiro’s way is the scientific method. According to the articles, Geertz opinion is that the humanistic approach to cultural anthropology is the best. This is based on the understanding that interpretation leads to definite contextual comprehension. In this regard, the application of scientific approaches puts to risk analysis of cultural aspects being incomplete. In addition, the issue of anthropology being a science gains popularity with its dual ancestry where it is the most scientific humanity of all. This is, in addition to being the most, humanist of all sciences. Based on the information it is crucial to note that anthropology should stick to being human in that all information should be deduced through interpretation for utmost accuracy. This is, in addition to attempting to prove, or disapprove scientific laws by generating deeper interpretations of diverse cultural phenomena. On the other hand, based on Carneiro, scientific should be used to explain cultural phenomena based on facts and evidence to create logical and rational explanations. This is as proposed through cause-effect studies, as opposed to the mere interpretation of causes and effects. In addition, cultural anthropology focuses on analysis thus, to Carneiro; it is a science, as opposed to the humanistic methods applied by interpretation. In this regard, the analysis goes deeper into details in an attempt to capture more information than that which is fou nd in humanist anthropology.

Friday, August 23, 2019

BUSINESS SIMULATION MODELLING Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

BUSINESS SIMULATION MODELLING - Essay Example Finally, evaluate the results of simulation (Banks, 2005, p.16). Although there are many types of simulation, this project focuses on probabilistic simulation using Monte Carlo method (Torries, 1998, p.59). It is also called computer simulation which is a numerical technique involving the modelling of a stochastic system to predict the systems behavior. The essential charactertistic of Monte Carlo simulation is the chance element (Kalos and Whitlock, 2008, p.116). This approach is used when the process given has a random or chance component. In this method, a given problem is solved by simulating the original data with random number generators (Pinsky and Karlin, 2010, p.285). The model constructed here is the probability distribution of the variable in question. The distribution can be obtained through direct observation or from past records (Hoekstra and Shachak, 1999, p.180). The objective of the research project is to make simulation of an inventory system. The inventory management simulation is a computer based simulation which generates demand and maintains all necessary records. Independent demand inventory models follow the classical model of economic order quantity. Inventory holding firms will bear two kinds of costs, ordering and holding costs. Ordering costs include items like labour, transportation, order processing and inspection. It is stated generally as a fixed cost per order and variations can also be included like quantity discounts. Holding costs include items like insurance, obsolescence, warehousing, taxes, management. It is stated as a percentage of unit cost per time period or an amount per item per time period. The EOQ model can be defined as a classical tradeoff model as with the increase in number of orders per time period, the ordering cost increases and holding cost decreases. The purpose of inventory management is to minimize b oth ordering and holding costs. When variation is

Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words - 108

Assignment Example Another objective of this kind of event is to carry out a research on dementia, in doing this there will be more voluntary participation and making knowledge dissemination easier and making translation and knowledge tools available to the entire public present in the arena. Another possible objective of this event could be to carry out a surveillance system where a possible group of a provincial or territorial partner carry out a short survey to know an approximate number of people affected by the disease. Besides, they can perform a risk reduction and a screening mechanism for dementia and hence formulating an agreed method of prevention and treatment for the targets acquired. Such kind of events also bring about the caregiver effects where through the educational talks given by the present guests, the people present can use to show more care to the people affected by dementia. Through the educational programs and the banners, the people present can be educated about this and can therefore get a different perspective of handling and even treating the affected patients. In order to create awareness of this kind of event, several measures must be taken. For instance, digitally advertising the event through the internet can help a great deal in making sure that the event reaches every individual. Most people in the 21st century have a regular access to the internet at least once a week or even more frequently, this makes the internet adverts more convenient. However, in other cases, brochures and leaflets can also be used in order to disseminate the information and make sure that the information reaches every possible ear. Besides organizing the Marathons or the semi marathons, other fun events such as sack racing and other games such as Basketball with reasonable registration fees; these could help attract more people to the fund raising and hence more funds being raised. To raise more eyebrows, in the

Thursday, August 22, 2019

First year students’ challenges Essay Example for Free

First year students’ challenges Essay Entering a collage is like entering to a new different culture for high school student. Students are not just entering a school, but they are entering an academic environment. Many challenges will be ahead for them since it is the first year of transition. Some students might need one or two semesters to adopt the new environment. The most common challenges that students will face are not only the academic challenge, but also time management and responsibility challenges. Academic challenge is the first difficulty for the freshman students. The academic workload is a lot more that they can think of. Indeed, they are required to read and research more for their homework, assignments, or research papers. For example, students are required to finish one book in one or two week in order to do their do assignment, while other classes also have much homework. Students cannot complain that they have much other homework to do, but they need to finish it one time, instead. Be able to do so, students will need to face another challenge that is time management. Time management will be the second challenge for the first year student as well. As I mentioned above, there are many workload that students need to finish, so student need to have time management. In fact, they need to plan what to do, how much time they need to spend for each of their homework, or they will not be able to finish it one time. For instance, they need to classify their work from urgent and important to important but not urgent. Form my own experience, I managed my work by considering which homework is more urgent then I did it first, and less urgent, I did it later. In addition, students will face the challenge of responsibility. After entering the college, the students will need to be on their owns. They need to have responsible for every activity they do, and every decision they make. They cannot put blame on somebody or something else. To instructor or other people, they are the mature now. If they are wake up late for school, for example, it is their fault, they cannot say because of this or because of that. In conclusion, the first year of transition can be one of the most challenges that they will have in their lives. They need to be more mature, and deal with the challenges they face by themselves.

Wednesday, August 21, 2019

Case study Human Social Behavior

Case study Human Social Behavior Introduction- This article is about the human behavior and the various factors which affects the human behavior. One of the factors that have a great impact on the behavior of human is the social environment and here all types of sociological effects are discussed. Various individual environmental factors and their impact on behavior are also discussed here. Inheritances also affects the human behavior and in this article two types of inheritances are discussed and that are cultural and the genetic inheritances. Nature and nurture both has impacts on the development of humans and nurture has some of the effects on behavior of humans. In the end of the article there is a detail discussion about the evolutionary thinking and the factors like psychological and the biological which changes the human behavior Body 1-7 Behavior of the human being decides the overall personality and this behavior of human are influenced by many factors like cultural, economic, and sociological. Human behavior is influenced by the most discussed effect that is the sociological effect. The most complex society of any creature on earth is of humans and it means self-preservation beyond the level of persona; physical survival is extended by us. Humans live in a very typical society in which there is bonding between the groups for the purpose of mutual and protection. Families, friendships, associations etc are included in these groups. Due to the formation of society and humans social links increases the bond between different people which is a human behavior. One of the bad behavior that every human being have is of greed and this behavior of human finishes them completely but due to society and links with different families and groups decreases the human greed of money or anything else. Due to increase of population a nd the urbanization, the people have started neglecting the social relationship and everyone is giving importance to the money rather than social relationship and behavior. Because of this, the rate of crime and deviant behavior of humans are found in cities. All these sociological effects have impacts on the behavior of the human beings and the social environment plays an important role in the development of the child which includes the attainment of full genetic and human potential. (Conklin, 2004) The biological and the psychological changes occurring in the human beings are basically during time period from birth and the end of adolescence. Genetic factors are the factors which are related to the genes of the child and also refer to the changes that occur at every point in growth. Social environment plays a very important role in the development of child and a new born baby do not experience any fear to contact with any specific people but after the time period of 8-12 months there is a change in them and they start to prefer the people who are familiar and also start showing the feelings like anxiety and distress when they are separated from their family members. Social environment helps the child to understand the social rules in the period of preschool and adulthood. The time period of middle childhood have the characteristics of friendship with age mates and also the beginning of romantic love. Another social effect on the child development is of bonding between the diffe rent groups of people and the idea of maintaining social relations develops in the child which helps him/her lifelong. There are various processes which are controlled genetically and they are known as maturation. Maturation is related to the mental and the physical development of the child and a child is said to be matured when he/she becomes capable of taking their own decisions and are well aware of the things which are good or bad for them. According to the some doctors and live examples it is seen that usually maturity comes at the age of 18 and the main thing to consider here is that is maturity comes from the social environment. All the social factors like relationship in society, working in society etc, helps in the attainment of complete genetic and the potential of human. But along with social environment there are factors which are known as individual environmental that affect the social behavior of human. There are various individual environmental factors that affect the human social behavior but the two most important environmental factors are physical environment and family environment factors. Physical environment: For child the physical environment includes the school environment and this environment includes the size of school and the size of classroom. The children who are more popular and rich normally enjoy high status and the popular children have the well developed role-taking skills. There are some people who are anxious and low in self esteem withdraw their contacts and which results in the bad impact on social relations. For example the children in school or college who are very aggressive prefer the normal children as their friend. (Steen, 2001) Family environment: The most important environmental factor and the socializing institution is family. With the birth of the child the parents starts taking care of his physical circumstance well being and not only the well being but also bring them up, educate them and this prepares them to contribute to the society. Parents have also influence on the aggression of their child and control on the aggression by parents helps the society to grow very much. So these two individual environmental factors affect the human social behavior. Inheritances also play important role like the cultural inheritance have more effects in comparison to the genetic inheritance and such cultural transmittance affects the development and behavior of human beings. There are two types of inheritances and they are cultural inheritance and the other one is genetic inheritance. The storage and communication of information, imitation and teaching refers to the cultural inheritance. The cultural inheritance is transmitted by brains where as the inheritance based on the genetic is known as genetic inheritance and these are not transmitted by brains and by genes. The genes involved in the cultural inheritance prepare the structure of brain where as in genetic inheritance all the things depends on genes. The latest stage which involves in the evolution of heredity is considered as cultural inheritance. There is a complete mechanism for the genetic inheritance and this mechanism give rise to the cultural inheritance. So cultural inheritance is better more important than the genetic because genetic behavior is permanent and there is no work of brain in this but in cultural every work is solved by brains which are transmitted by brain and this is not perm anent. The cultural transmittance affects the development as it helps in setting the mind and it gives the comparison between the good and worse. The behavior of human being like greed is also removed by cultural transmittance because this type of behavior of any person is not accepted by the culture and which results in the perfect growth and development of the human beings. But the most important factor which influences the growth and development of individual is the family environment. Discussions about the nurture and nature are also necessary for the human behavior. (Lerner, 2002) Both nature and nurture have great effects on the development of humans but here are some of the effects of nurture. Affect of nurture on the development of the individual means the factors which are environmental present around the individual which includes growing of the person and development on many levels. There are many factors included in the nurture and they are effect of family, schools, culture, media, society etc. Nurture has great effects on the development of a child and mostly on the students. The most important factor that affects greatly is the family atmosphere and the influence of family can make an individual perfect but the bad family atmosphere can ruin the life of the individual also. Most of the influences of the families are on career development of an individual which is more than the influence of school, work etc. For the college students like us who are given the great responsibility of decision making at the time of growing up and must be able to choose ea sily and get the job very easily. Members of the family help in making the atmosphere healthy by making it helpful and socially fit. It is because of family that that helps individuals to make social relations and helps in increasing their feelings towards everyone. As the technological resources are more with families as compared to students, family is considered for the support of the individual in career. (McCall, 2009) According to my survey majority is in favor of the change seen in the behavior while personally experiencing the world outside. It is the view of the most of the persons who interacted with the other people that this experience changed their attitude. Mostly the human behavior is affected by the nature of the human and a drastic change is seen in the ancient and the modern human behavior. The most important thing to know about human is nature and its influences on growth and functioning. Nature of an individual is the only thing which can give the idea that what kind of person heshe is. For example, if a person has honest and friendly nature then heshe will get every possible help during their bad time from their friends and family members. On the other hand if the person has a greedy or selfish nature then no one will like to help him and no one will like him as a friend. Person with good nature behaves in different manner and person with bad nature behaves in other manner. (Wormer, 2010) There are large number of differences between the ancient and the modern behaviors of humans. The modern human behavior is found in the type of language, religion, art, music, cooking etc. Due to the advancement in every field whether it is cultural, economic, political etc, the human behavior has also changed a lot. The people in the ancient times had so much social relations and they worked together in such a way that they had no selfishness and no greed of money. People in ancient times didnt even think of harming the others but the modern people dont even think about others and just think about themselves and how to make more and more money. According to the recent survey it was found that the modern people have 50% less social relations than ancient people. Modern people are harsh towards each other and they dont even think before giving harm to anyone. From all these points we can conclude that the behavior of modern people has changed a lot in comparison to ancient people. Alo ng with the nature evolutionary thinking also affects the behavior of humans and some other factors like socio-biological factors and psychological factors also contributes to it. Evolutionary thinking is the thinking which is based on the change in the inherited traits of the population of human beings through the successive generations and this change is the result of interaction between the processes that brings variations in the population. One of the greatest strength of this type of thinking is that it always helps in answering why question style in a fashion which can be scientific and non-metaphysical. Evolutionary thinking has great effects on the behavior of humans and it makes the person to take the decisions with great knowledge and matures that individual. Reflection of evolutionary thinking about health is the concept of natural healing. In this the psychological are also discussed and these factors are those factors that develops as the defense mechanisms and these factors are created when there are changes in the family environment of an individual and that includes restrictive, abusive and creating feelings of fear in the individuals. These fa ctors have a great impact on the behavior of human like the individual who faces all these problems become lonely and makes their behavior of cheating anyone etc. Socio-biological factors are the factors that mean the biological behavior for all social behavior. These factors are the biological or generic factors and they are operative in mate selection. This factor changes the behavior of human and makes their behavior common and mature. These are the relation between the evolutionary thinking and its effect on human behavior. (Hume, 2010) Result of Questionnaire- 1= Strongly Agree, 2= Agree, 3= Neutral, 4= Disagree, 5= Strongly Disagree. Questionnaire Results: 1 2 3 4 5 1. There is a change seen in your behavior while personally experiencing the world outside. 6 11 5 3 2. You gain skills or abilities while interacting with other people on your way. 10 11 1 3 3. Has this experience changed or affected your attitude. 10 10 4 1 4. There is improvement in your ambitions and knowledge. 11 9 3 1 1 5. There is any leadership qualities observed through your past experience. 4 9 11 1 6. There has been personality development in your behavior through experience. 7 13 3 1 1 7. There is any distraction seen in the focus and the concentration on work. 1 12 9 2 1 8. There has been adoption of ideas of different things that motivate you. 6 10 6 3 9. There is any goal set to achieve your target. 8 12 3 2 10. There is some learning attitude developed in you to understand the things better through your past experiences. 8 13 4 Conclusion- So as to conclude with the whole article we have created many of the bodies in order to throw light on the issue of the human social behavior which has influenced many of the social issues which are discussed. There is much importance of the social environment which is created in the development of the child which includes the achievement of the genetic and human potential. The Human behavior is changing with the increasing factors in the world where environmental factors of an individual also affect the behavior of a human being. There are discussions carried out to make the full description of the human social behavior and challenges which are faced by the company due to various kinds of human social behavior. We have defined the Human social behavior as the population which behaves influenced by the emotions, cultures, ethics, rapport and hypnosis which falls within a range of some behavior and some outside acceptable limits. There are various human natures provided which has adverse effect on the human behavior and many of the theories are mentioned in order to prove and justify the human behavior as changed. There is change in thinking which has been found in many of the humans that has greatly affected the human social behavior and attitude towards the other people and the other factors such as socio-biological; psychological factors also come into affect at the same time.

Tuesday, August 20, 2019

Value of Green Supply Chain Management (GSCM)

Value of Green Supply Chain Management (GSCM) Organizations worldwide are continuously trying to develop new and innovative ways to enhance their competitiveness. Bacallan (2000) suggests that some of these organizations are enhancing their competitiveness through improvements in their environmental performance to comply with mounting environmental regulations, to address the environmental concerns of their customers, and to mitigate the environmental impact of their production and service activities. Green supply chain management as a form of environmental improvement is an operational initiative that many organizations are adopting to address such environmental issues. Currently, the green concept is a critical issue for companies, but when the majority of businesses are cost focused, the idea of implementing and moving toward green practices is often seen as a costly strategy. Bowen et al. (2001) state that organizations will adopt green supply chain management practices if they identify that this will result in specific financial and operational benefits. According to Routroy (2009), Greening the manufacturing supply chain may result in one or more benefits, in terms of cost reduction, operational efficiency improvement, flexibility improvement, sales enhancement, customer value enhancement, and societal image improvement. Green supply chain management is also to enhance firms environmental performance through inter-organizational collaboration with business partners and increase efficiency by cost saving programs and proactive risk management practices (Hervani et al., 2005; Rao and Holt, 2005; Zhu and Sarkis, 2007). We will review the literature about Green Supply Chain Management (GSCM) concept and then we will see how it is translated within the supply chains. Then, the common purpose of this research will be to identify the link between GSCM and overall firm performance. We decided, based on the literature and on a specific framework (Rao Holt, 2005) applied in Asia, to tackle the concept of green supply chain management in Western Europe by including environmental initiatives in: (1) Inbound logistics; (2) Production or the internal supply chain; (3) Outbound logistics, including reverse logistics. Nowadays, how organisations are implementing GSCM and what are the impacts on their business? At the end of this research we will identify the best practices, and the way they are they measured. Moreover, we will see in what extent an effective Green Supply Chain Management could be a driver for innovation and business performance in manufacturing firms? Finally, we will see if Green Supply Chain Management lead to profitability and competitiveness. Our study will consider manufacturing companies in Western Europe. II Literature review Definition Green supply chain management Several studies have considered the concept of ecological sustainability as a framework for studying management practices in both operational and strategic contexts (Sarkis and Rasheed, 1995; Klassen and McLaughlin, 1996; King and Lenox, 2001). As part of this effort, other studies have examined the greening of supply chains within various contexts including in product design (Allenby, 1993; Gupta, 1995), process design (Porter and Van der Linde, 1995a; Klassen and McLaughlin, 1996), manufacturing practices (Winsemius and Guntram, 1992), purchasing (Handfield et al., 2002) and a broad mixture of these elements (Bowen et al., 2001a). It is not surprising that GSCM finds its definition in supply chain management. Adding the green component to supply chain management involves addressing the influence and relationships of supply chain management to the natural environment. Motivated by an environmentally-conscious mindset, it can also stem from a competitiveness motive within organizations. In this paper GSCM is defined as: Green Supply Chain Management GSCM = Green Purchasing + Green Manufacturing/Materials Management + Green Distribution=Marketing + Reverse Logistics Figure 1 shows this GSCM equation graphically, where reverse logistics closes the loop of a typical forward supply chain and includes reuse, remanufacturing, and/or recycling of materials into new materials or other products with value in the marketplace. The idea is to eliminate or minimize waste (energy, emissions, chemical/hazardous, solid wastes). This figure is representative of a single organizations internal supply chain, its major operational elements and the linkage to external organizations. A number of environmentally conscious practices are evident throughout the supply chain ranging from green design (marketing and engineering), green procurement practices (e.g. certifying suppliers, purchasing environmentally sound materials/products), total quality environmental management (internal performance measurement, pollution prevention), environmentally friendly packaging and transportation, to the various product end-of-life practices defined by the Res of reduction, reuse, remanufacturing, recycling. Expanding this figure, a number of organizational relationships could be found at various stages of thismodel, including customers and their chains, as well as suppliers and their chains, forming webs of relationships. Figure 1. GSCM graph The development of industrial ecosystems would be greatly supported by GSCM practices. Korhonen and Niutanen (2003) in their study of material and energy flows in the local forest industry in Finland suggested these flows were comparable to other economic and industrial systems. In the last two decades, the product-based systems perspective and the geographically defined local-regional industrial ecosystem have Porter (1991) argues the pressure to innovate from an environmental perspective comes from regulatory pressure, as firms respond in creative and dynamic ways to environmental regulation by introducing innovations improving environmental outcomes. Other studies concluded environmental innovation is the result of market pressures causing firms to become more efficient. Porter and Van der Linde (1995a, b) concluded firms respond to competitive conditions and regulatory pressure by developing strategies to maximize resource productivity, enabling them to simultaneously improve their industrial and environmental performance. Furthering this issue, Greffen and Rothenberg (2000) suggest suppliers can be an important source of enhanced competency for radical environmental innovation, which, in relation to an integrated technological system, demands capabilities beyond those likely to exist within a single company. The added competency brought by the supply chain partners is important. Other external pressures do exist and include environmental compliance, liability, issues of business continuity, the call for benchmarking to national, international, or industry standards, customer attitudes toward product take-back, and even pressures from inter-organizational information technology/data management systems. The innovation of GSCM/Performance Measurement is necessary for a number of reasons in response to external pressures. For example, business performance measurement, for purposes of external reporting, is fundamentally driven by the creation, maximization and defence of economic rents or surplus. These surpluses or rents in business come from distinctive capabilities such as brands and reputation, strategic assets, innovations, and the distinctive structure of relationships firms enjoy both internally with their employees and/or externally with their customers and suppliers. External reporting is also necessary to maintain organizational legitimacy with respect to environmental issues (Harvey and Schaefer, 2001). Sustainability. One of the major definitions of sustainability and certainly most well known is that of the Brundtland Commission (World Commission on Environment and Development, 1987, p.8): development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their needs. This short definition includes the interest of understanding the environmental impact of economic activity in both developing and industrialized economies (Erlich and Erlich, 1991); ensuring worldwide food safety (Lal et al., 2002); ensuring that vital human needs are met (Savitz and Weber, 2006); and assuring the protection of non-renewable resources (Whiteman and Cooper, 2000). Unfortunately, the societal aspect of sustainability is complicated for firms to apply and provides little explanation regarding how organizations might recognize future versus present needs, determine the technologies and resources necessary to meet those needs, and understand how to balance organizational responsibilities to numerous stakeholders such as shareholders, employees, society and the natural environment (Hart, 1995; Starik and Rands, 1995). Sustainability has been also investigated in the fields of management, operations, and engineering. Within the management literature, most of the current conceptualizations of organizational sustainability have focused on ecological sustainability (the natural environment), with little recognition of social and economic responsibilities (Jennings and Zandbergen, 1995; Shrivastava, 1995a; Starik and Rands, 1995). Sustainable refers to the triple bottom line, for economic, social and environmental. An approach to competitive advantage. A particular organization has competitive advantage when it achieves a higher return on investment than its competitors, or it is able to do so (Grant, 1996). Therefore, in order to have competitive advantage organizations must have the ability to obtain higher profit margins than other companies in the industry. Organizations with competitive advantage, however, might show not the highest profit rate. For example, competitive organizations might prefer, for one or another reason, to sell their products and services at a lower price than the maximum price it could mark. Two major types of competitive advantage can be enjoyed by organizations (Porter, 1985): cost advantage, which is the result of supplying similar products and/or services to low prices; and differentiation advantage, which comes from offering differentiated products and/or services to customers, who, in turn, are ready to pay an additional price which overcomes the additional differentiation costs. While the cost advantage position implies to have the lowest costs in the industry, differentiation advantage refers to offering something unique which is valued by customers. Competitive advantage can derive from one or more factors or sources. Firstly, literature on strategic management suggests the following major sources of cost advantage (e.g., Porter, 1985; Grant, 1996): scale economies, learning economies, production capacity management, product design, cost of inputs, process technology, and management efficiency. Secondly, sources of differentiation advantage include tangible and intangible aspects which are significantly valued by potential customers as to be ready to pay an additional price for them (e.g., Porter, 1985; Grant, 1996); tangible aspects refer to observable characteristics of the products and services, their performance, and complementary products and services; intangible aspects, in turn, include social, emotional, psychological and aesthetic considerations which are present in any choice of products and services. Recently, a major theoretical framework has been developed in strategic management literature which seems to be particularly appropriate for identifying the characteristics that a particular resource or capability must show in order to be a major source of competitive advantage. This theoretical framework is the resource based view of the firm theory. Performance Corporate performance measurement and its field application continues to grow. The diversity and level of performance measures are linked to the goal of the company or the individual strategic business units features. For instance, when measuring performance, organizations have to think about existing financial measures such as return on investment, profitability, market share and revenue growth at a competitive and strategic level. Other measures are more operationally focused, but may inevitably be linked to strategic level measures and issues. This is the case of customer service and inventory performance (supply, turnover). GSCM implementation Where to begin? Viable environmental sustainability programs require meaningful action across a broad range of processes. Some of the most impactful areas include: Production planning: The most valuable members of a supply chain are able to provide accurate forecasts and deliver reliably so as to help reduce over purchasing, over-production and waste Manufacturing: The adoption of techniques such as lean process improvement should result in less over processing as well as reduced energy intensive storage and waste Distribution: Network redesign. Smart routing, backhauling, fill optimization and mode switching à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â‚¬  all are likely to result in fewer freight miles Green design: The electronics and related high-tech industries practice collaboration as a means of optimizing the green aspects of their components and end-products; proactive and/or influential members of a supply chain can promote/pursue similar collaboration/ innovation Packaging: The greenest firms seek to minimize the environmental impact of packaging, not only by using less, but also by evaluating the energy, waste, recovery and other life cycle impacts of their packaging choices Recycled content: Companies score green points by maximizing their use. of these materials as well as by using materials in products that are in turn easily recyclable Warehousing: Challenge existing assumptions in light of higher energy costs and the need to reduce carbon footprints Green energy: More green points are available by using green or renewable energy sources à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â‚¬  although this can be difficult in regulated energy markets (and a factor in future location decisions) IT: Videoconferencing and remote servicing can reduce business travel; Energy Star rated PCs along with optimized power consumption settings can significantly pare energy costs Server farms: Energy efficient servers arrayed according to state-of-the-art cooling practices can generate enormous energy savings Ridesharing/telecommuting: A growing number of companies are working with municipalities to better optimize public transportation to their facilities. More companies are also enabling more workdays at home as well as providing incentives for carpooling Estates: Investments in building air tightness, insulation and energy efficient heating, cooling, lighting, plant and equipment can significantly reduce carbon footprints Green procurement: It is possible to reduce your carbon footprint by paying more attention to your own procurement. Supplier carbon footprint, ISO certifications, procurement distance have to be part of the selection criterias. Conceptual framework Greening the inbound function It is argued that greening the supply chain has numerous benefits to an organization, ranging from cost reduction, to integrating suppliers in a participative decision-making process that promotes environmental innovation (Bowen et al., 2001; Hall, 1993; Rao, 2002). Critical parts of the inbound function are the purchasing and supply field. Green purchasing strategies are adopted by organizations in response to the increasing global concerns of environmental sustainability. The Green purchasing should be able address reduction of waste produced, material substitution through environmental sourcing of raw materials, and waste minimization of hazardous materials. (Rao Holt, 2005) The involvement and support of suppliers is crucial to achieving such goals. (Vachon and Klassen, 2006). Furthermore, organizations are managing more and more their suppliers environmental performance to ensure that the materials and equipments supplied by them are environmentally-friendly in nature and are produced using environmentally-friendly processes. Min and Galle (1997) explore green purchasing to determine the key factors affecting a buying firms choice of suppliers, the key barriers and the obstacles to green purchasing initiatives. They also investigated the impact of green purchasing on a corporations environmental goals. Below listed subjects to get information on the green inbound phase of a supply chain: (1) Guiding suppliers to set up their own environmental programs; (2) bringing together suppliers in the same industry to share their know-how and problems; (3) informing suppliers about the benefits of cleaner production and technologies; (4) urging/pressuring suppliers to take environmental actions; and (5) choice of suppliers by environmental criteria. Greening the production phase or the internal supply chain In this phase, there are a number of concepts that can be explored, such as cleaner production, design for environment, remanufacturing and lean production. Hong, He-Boong, Jungbae Roh, (2009) highlight through their research that strategic green management needs the combination of integrated product development (IPD) and supply chain coordination (SCC) for desired business outcomes. Thanks to a survey on 580 manufacturing plants in the US, adopting cleaner production techniques, Florida and Davison (2001) showed that green corporations are innovative in their environmental practices, and these strategies emerge from a real commitment towards reducing waste and pollution. Lean production/manufacturing is also an important consideration in reducing the environmental impact of the production phase. In their research King and Lenox (2001), concludes that lean production is complementary to improvements in environmental performance and it often lowers the marginal cost of pollution reduction thus enhancing competitiveness. In addition, Rothenberg et al. (2001) identify that lean plants aim to minimize waste and buffers, leading not only to reduce buffers in environmental technology and management, but also in an overall approach to manufacturing that minimizes waste products. (1) Environment-friendly raw materials; (2) substitution of environmentally questionable materials; (3) taking environmental criteria into consideration; (4) environmental design considerations; (5) optimization of process to reduce solid waste and emissions; (6) use of cleaner technology processes to make savings in energy, water, and waste; (7) internal recycling of materials within the production phase; and (8) incorporating environmental total quality management principles such as worker empowerment. Greening the outbound function On the outbound side of the green supply chain, green logistics comprises all links from the manufacturer to the end users and includes products, processes, packaging, transport, and disposal (Skjoett-Larsen, 2000). Rao, (2003) and Sarkis, (1999) argue on the fact that green marketing, environment-friendly packaging, and environment-friendly distribution, are all initiatives that might improve the environmental performance of an organization and its supply chain. Reverse logistics and waste exchange and ore generally management of wastes in the outbound function can lead to cost savings and enhanced competitiveness (Rao, 2003). In order to address these environmental impacts of packaging, many countries now have programs and legislation that aims to minimize the amount of packaging that enters the waste stream, such as the Packaging Directive in the EU. The distribution, for the whole supply chain is a huge stake for green management. In fact the distribution results of a trade-off between efficiency and effectiveness firm strategy. For this reason is difficult to handle As part of outbound logistics, green marketing has an important part to play in the link between environmental innovation and competitive advantage (Menon and Menon, 1997). Encouraging suppliers to take back packaging is a form of reverse logistics that can be an important consideration in greening the outbound function, with a study by Dorn (1996) identifying an increase in market share amongst companies that implemented an environmentally-friendly packaging scheme. The product design step is more and more integrated within green supply chain issues because 80% of the environmental burden and cost of a product is fixed during this phase (Carbone, Moatti, 2008). Strategic variables to take in account for an empirical study; (1) Environment-friendly waste management; (2) environmental improvement of packaging; (3) taking back packaging; (4) eco-labeling; (5) recovery of companys end-of-life products; (6) providing consumers with information on environmental friendly products and/or production methods; and (7) use of environmentally-friendly transportation. Competitiveness Economic performance Bacallan (2000) suggests that organizations are enhancing their competitiveness through improvements in their environmental performance to comply with mounting environmental regulations, to address the environmental concerns of their customers (à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦). However, an interesting point to notice is that, as long as the market does not seek environmental value-drivers in the products and services it purchases, environmental issues are not necessarily considered by organizations and consumers. (Rao Holt, 2005) Fortunately, over the last few years there has been a growth in environmental awareness of consumers in general. Clearly a growing number of corporations are developing company-wide environmental programs and green products sourced from markets around the world. Therefore, environmental issues are becoming a source of competitiveness. All these efforts aim to improve environmental performance, enhance corporate image, reduce costs, reduce risks of non-compliance and improve marketing advantage. Nevertheless, some organizations are still looking upon green initiatives as involving trade-offs between environmental performance and economic performance. The financial performance of firms is affected by environmental performance in a variety of ways. When waste, both hazardous and non-hazardous, is minimized as part of environmental management, it results in better utilization of natural resources, improved efficiency, higher productivity and reduces operating costs (Rao Holt, 2005). Nowadays and in the future, a good green player could expect to increase its brand image and its market share and then improve its profitability against company without enough green concern while saving costs by innovative processes. To investigate the link between green supply chain management and economic performance we could refers to those key aspects: (1) New market opportunities; (2) product price increase; (3) profit margin;(4) sales; and (5) market share. And competitiveness: (1) Improved efficiency; (2) quality improvement; (3) productivity improvement; and (4) cost savings. Methodology To validate our research, an empirical, survey-based research approach will be taken. Based on the empirical studies through the literature, and a meaningful framework used in the relevant research of Rao Holt in 2005 applied on Asian companies. We choose to follow a common technique to validate the framework presented in the preceding section, a linear SEM (Stochastic Expectation Maximization) approach is used (JÃÆ' ¶reskog and SÃÆ' ¶rbom, 1993) to validate the causal relationships between the different latent constructs of: greening the inbound function; greening production; greening the outbound function; competitiveness and; economic performance. The questionnaire will be distributed to the supply chain managers and/or environmental management representative (EMR) or the chief executive of manufacturing organizations in Western Europe. In order to have both MNCs and SMEs ( Responses will be collected on a four-point and five-point Likert scale, and open-ended questions. The four-point scale served to force the respondents to check either on the negative side or on the positive side. The choice not to focus only on the leading edge ISO14001 accredited organizations (running environmental management) allow us to broader our research and then make a comparison between those without formal environmental management accreditation, and best players accredited. In terms of financial performance, this strategy will be interesting for identifying benefits and again do comparisons. Expected results. As this type of research was already done in South-Est Asia, our results will allow us to compare our findings and trend with those in South-Est Asia. We expect a response of 10%, therefore we will send to a consequent sample to get sufficient and tangible return. We will probably be able to confirm that greening the supply chain also has potential to lead to competitiveness and economic performance. As the current environmental concern in Europe is high, including governmental and customers pressures these research findings would probably show that firms that are greening their supply chains not only achieve substantial cost savings, but also enhance either sales, market share or exploit new market opportunities. The cost aspect will be important to assess as it is directly connected to the overall performance. The main limitation of this research will be probably the small sample of organizations, but the lack of empirical research in Europe will be also one of the main strengths of this paper. Therefore, the findings cannot be generalized to all organizations in this region or around the world. Finally, future research should empirically test the relationships suggested in this paper in different countries, to enable comparative studies. For further research, a larger sample will allow detailed cross-sectoral comparisons and establish international patterns regarding benefits from GSCM. Performance Measurement for Green Supply chain management: Context In supply chains with multiple actors, (vendors manufacturers, distributors and retailers) whether regionally or globally dispersed, it is difficult to attribute performance results to one particular entity within the chain, by the way performance measurement is really challenging. There are difficulties in measuring performance within organizations and even more difficulties arise in inter-organizational environmental performance measurement. The reasons for lack of systems to measure performance across organizations are multidimensional, including non-standardized data, poor technological integration, geographical and cultural differences, differences in organizational policy, lack of agreed upon metrics, or poor understanding of the need for inter-organizational performance measurement. (Hervani, A. Helms, M. Sarkis, J., 2005) Performance measurement in supply chains is difficult for additional reasons, especially when looking at numerous tiers within a supply chain, and green supply chain management performance measurement, or GSCM/PM, is virtually non-existent. With these barriers and difficulties in mind, GSCM/PM is needed for a number of reasons (including regulatory, marketing and competitiveness reasons). Overcoming these barriers is not a trivial issue, but the long-term sustainability (environmental and otherwise) and competitiveness of organizations may rely on successful adoption of GSCM/PM. The basic purposes of GSCM/PM are: external reporting (economic rent), internal control (managing the business better) and internal analysis (understanding the business better and continuous improvement). These are the fundamental issues that drive the development of frameworks for business performance measurement. It is important to consider both purpose, as well as the interrelationships of these various measurements. Supply chain management Supply chain management is the coordination and management of a complex network of activities involved in delivering a finished product to the end-user or customer. It is a vital business function and the process includes sourcing raw materials and parts, manufacturing and assembling products, storage, order entry and tracking, distribution through the various channels and finally delivery to the customer. A companys supply chain structure consists of external suppliers, internal functions of the company, and external distributors, as well as customers (commercial or end-user). Firms may be members of multiple supply chains simultaneously. The management and coordination is further complicated by global players spread across geographic boundaries and multiple time zones. The successful management of a supply chain is also influenced by customer expectations, globalization, information technology, government regulation, competition and the environment. Performance management and measurement Corporate performance measurement and its application continue to grow and encompass both quantitative and qualitative measurements and approaches. The variety and level of performance measures depends greatly on the goal of the organization or the individual strategic business units characteristics. For example, when measuring performance, companies must consider existing financial measures such as return on investment, profitability, market share and revenue growth at a more competitive and strategic level. Other measures such as customer service and inventory performance (supply, turnover) are more operationally focused, but may necessarily be linked to strategic level measures and issues. Overall, these difficulties in developing standards for performance measurement are traced to the various measurement taxonomies. Example taxonomic considerations include: management level to measure à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â‚¬Å" strategic, tactical, or operational; tangible versus intangible measures; variations in collection and reporting; an organizations location along the supply chain or functional differentiation within organizations (e.g. accounting, versus marketing or operations). Similar to the performance measurement used, the performance measurement system may be unique to each individual organization, or unit within an organization, reflecting its fundamental purpose and its environment. Several studies have investigated the universal principles of performance measurement (Adams et al., 1995; Gunasekaran et al., 2001; Sink and Tuttle, 1990). These studies arrived at a number of conclus Value of Green Supply Chain Management (GSCM) Value of Green Supply Chain Management (GSCM) Organizations worldwide are continuously trying to develop new and innovative ways to enhance their competitiveness. Bacallan (2000) suggests that some of these organizations are enhancing their competitiveness through improvements in their environmental performance to comply with mounting environmental regulations, to address the environmental concerns of their customers, and to mitigate the environmental impact of their production and service activities. Green supply chain management as a form of environmental improvement is an operational initiative that many organizations are adopting to address such environmental issues. Currently, the green concept is a critical issue for companies, but when the majority of businesses are cost focused, the idea of implementing and moving toward green practices is often seen as a costly strategy. Bowen et al. (2001) state that organizations will adopt green supply chain management practices if they identify that this will result in specific financial and operational benefits. According to Routroy (2009), Greening the manufacturing supply chain may result in one or more benefits, in terms of cost reduction, operational efficiency improvement, flexibility improvement, sales enhancement, customer value enhancement, and societal image improvement. Green supply chain management is also to enhance firms environmental performance through inter-organizational collaboration with business partners and increase efficiency by cost saving programs and proactive risk management practices (Hervani et al., 2005; Rao and Holt, 2005; Zhu and Sarkis, 2007). We will review the literature about Green Supply Chain Management (GSCM) concept and then we will see how it is translated within the supply chains. Then, the common purpose of this research will be to identify the link between GSCM and overall firm performance. We decided, based on the literature and on a specific framework (Rao Holt, 2005) applied in Asia, to tackle the concept of green supply chain management in Western Europe by including environmental initiatives in: (1) Inbound logistics; (2) Production or the internal supply chain; (3) Outbound logistics, including reverse logistics. Nowadays, how organisations are implementing GSCM and what are the impacts on their business? At the end of this research we will identify the best practices, and the way they are they measured. Moreover, we will see in what extent an effective Green Supply Chain Management could be a driver for innovation and business performance in manufacturing firms? Finally, we will see if Green Supply Chain Management lead to profitability and competitiveness. Our study will consider manufacturing companies in Western Europe. II Literature review Definition Green supply chain management Several studies have considered the concept of ecological sustainability as a framework for studying management practices in both operational and strategic contexts (Sarkis and Rasheed, 1995; Klassen and McLaughlin, 1996; King and Lenox, 2001). As part of this effort, other studies have examined the greening of supply chains within various contexts including in product design (Allenby, 1993; Gupta, 1995), process design (Porter and Van der Linde, 1995a; Klassen and McLaughlin, 1996), manufacturing practices (Winsemius and Guntram, 1992), purchasing (Handfield et al., 2002) and a broad mixture of these elements (Bowen et al., 2001a). It is not surprising that GSCM finds its definition in supply chain management. Adding the green component to supply chain management involves addressing the influence and relationships of supply chain management to the natural environment. Motivated by an environmentally-conscious mindset, it can also stem from a competitiveness motive within organizations. In this paper GSCM is defined as: Green Supply Chain Management GSCM = Green Purchasing + Green Manufacturing/Materials Management + Green Distribution=Marketing + Reverse Logistics Figure 1 shows this GSCM equation graphically, where reverse logistics closes the loop of a typical forward supply chain and includes reuse, remanufacturing, and/or recycling of materials into new materials or other products with value in the marketplace. The idea is to eliminate or minimize waste (energy, emissions, chemical/hazardous, solid wastes). This figure is representative of a single organizations internal supply chain, its major operational elements and the linkage to external organizations. A number of environmentally conscious practices are evident throughout the supply chain ranging from green design (marketing and engineering), green procurement practices (e.g. certifying suppliers, purchasing environmentally sound materials/products), total quality environmental management (internal performance measurement, pollution prevention), environmentally friendly packaging and transportation, to the various product end-of-life practices defined by the Res of reduction, reuse, remanufacturing, recycling. Expanding this figure, a number of organizational relationships could be found at various stages of thismodel, including customers and their chains, as well as suppliers and their chains, forming webs of relationships. Figure 1. GSCM graph The development of industrial ecosystems would be greatly supported by GSCM practices. Korhonen and Niutanen (2003) in their study of material and energy flows in the local forest industry in Finland suggested these flows were comparable to other economic and industrial systems. In the last two decades, the product-based systems perspective and the geographically defined local-regional industrial ecosystem have Porter (1991) argues the pressure to innovate from an environmental perspective comes from regulatory pressure, as firms respond in creative and dynamic ways to environmental regulation by introducing innovations improving environmental outcomes. Other studies concluded environmental innovation is the result of market pressures causing firms to become more efficient. Porter and Van der Linde (1995a, b) concluded firms respond to competitive conditions and regulatory pressure by developing strategies to maximize resource productivity, enabling them to simultaneously improve their industrial and environmental performance. Furthering this issue, Greffen and Rothenberg (2000) suggest suppliers can be an important source of enhanced competency for radical environmental innovation, which, in relation to an integrated technological system, demands capabilities beyond those likely to exist within a single company. The added competency brought by the supply chain partners is important. Other external pressures do exist and include environmental compliance, liability, issues of business continuity, the call for benchmarking to national, international, or industry standards, customer attitudes toward product take-back, and even pressures from inter-organizational information technology/data management systems. The innovation of GSCM/Performance Measurement is necessary for a number of reasons in response to external pressures. For example, business performance measurement, for purposes of external reporting, is fundamentally driven by the creation, maximization and defence of economic rents or surplus. These surpluses or rents in business come from distinctive capabilities such as brands and reputation, strategic assets, innovations, and the distinctive structure of relationships firms enjoy both internally with their employees and/or externally with their customers and suppliers. External reporting is also necessary to maintain organizational legitimacy with respect to environmental issues (Harvey and Schaefer, 2001). Sustainability. One of the major definitions of sustainability and certainly most well known is that of the Brundtland Commission (World Commission on Environment and Development, 1987, p.8): development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their needs. This short definition includes the interest of understanding the environmental impact of economic activity in both developing and industrialized economies (Erlich and Erlich, 1991); ensuring worldwide food safety (Lal et al., 2002); ensuring that vital human needs are met (Savitz and Weber, 2006); and assuring the protection of non-renewable resources (Whiteman and Cooper, 2000). Unfortunately, the societal aspect of sustainability is complicated for firms to apply and provides little explanation regarding how organizations might recognize future versus present needs, determine the technologies and resources necessary to meet those needs, and understand how to balance organizational responsibilities to numerous stakeholders such as shareholders, employees, society and the natural environment (Hart, 1995; Starik and Rands, 1995). Sustainability has been also investigated in the fields of management, operations, and engineering. Within the management literature, most of the current conceptualizations of organizational sustainability have focused on ecological sustainability (the natural environment), with little recognition of social and economic responsibilities (Jennings and Zandbergen, 1995; Shrivastava, 1995a; Starik and Rands, 1995). Sustainable refers to the triple bottom line, for economic, social and environmental. An approach to competitive advantage. A particular organization has competitive advantage when it achieves a higher return on investment than its competitors, or it is able to do so (Grant, 1996). Therefore, in order to have competitive advantage organizations must have the ability to obtain higher profit margins than other companies in the industry. Organizations with competitive advantage, however, might show not the highest profit rate. For example, competitive organizations might prefer, for one or another reason, to sell their products and services at a lower price than the maximum price it could mark. Two major types of competitive advantage can be enjoyed by organizations (Porter, 1985): cost advantage, which is the result of supplying similar products and/or services to low prices; and differentiation advantage, which comes from offering differentiated products and/or services to customers, who, in turn, are ready to pay an additional price which overcomes the additional differentiation costs. While the cost advantage position implies to have the lowest costs in the industry, differentiation advantage refers to offering something unique which is valued by customers. Competitive advantage can derive from one or more factors or sources. Firstly, literature on strategic management suggests the following major sources of cost advantage (e.g., Porter, 1985; Grant, 1996): scale economies, learning economies, production capacity management, product design, cost of inputs, process technology, and management efficiency. Secondly, sources of differentiation advantage include tangible and intangible aspects which are significantly valued by potential customers as to be ready to pay an additional price for them (e.g., Porter, 1985; Grant, 1996); tangible aspects refer to observable characteristics of the products and services, their performance, and complementary products and services; intangible aspects, in turn, include social, emotional, psychological and aesthetic considerations which are present in any choice of products and services. Recently, a major theoretical framework has been developed in strategic management literature which seems to be particularly appropriate for identifying the characteristics that a particular resource or capability must show in order to be a major source of competitive advantage. This theoretical framework is the resource based view of the firm theory. Performance Corporate performance measurement and its field application continues to grow. The diversity and level of performance measures are linked to the goal of the company or the individual strategic business units features. For instance, when measuring performance, organizations have to think about existing financial measures such as return on investment, profitability, market share and revenue growth at a competitive and strategic level. Other measures are more operationally focused, but may inevitably be linked to strategic level measures and issues. This is the case of customer service and inventory performance (supply, turnover). GSCM implementation Where to begin? Viable environmental sustainability programs require meaningful action across a broad range of processes. Some of the most impactful areas include: Production planning: The most valuable members of a supply chain are able to provide accurate forecasts and deliver reliably so as to help reduce over purchasing, over-production and waste Manufacturing: The adoption of techniques such as lean process improvement should result in less over processing as well as reduced energy intensive storage and waste Distribution: Network redesign. Smart routing, backhauling, fill optimization and mode switching à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â‚¬  all are likely to result in fewer freight miles Green design: The electronics and related high-tech industries practice collaboration as a means of optimizing the green aspects of their components and end-products; proactive and/or influential members of a supply chain can promote/pursue similar collaboration/ innovation Packaging: The greenest firms seek to minimize the environmental impact of packaging, not only by using less, but also by evaluating the energy, waste, recovery and other life cycle impacts of their packaging choices Recycled content: Companies score green points by maximizing their use. of these materials as well as by using materials in products that are in turn easily recyclable Warehousing: Challenge existing assumptions in light of higher energy costs and the need to reduce carbon footprints Green energy: More green points are available by using green or renewable energy sources à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â‚¬  although this can be difficult in regulated energy markets (and a factor in future location decisions) IT: Videoconferencing and remote servicing can reduce business travel; Energy Star rated PCs along with optimized power consumption settings can significantly pare energy costs Server farms: Energy efficient servers arrayed according to state-of-the-art cooling practices can generate enormous energy savings Ridesharing/telecommuting: A growing number of companies are working with municipalities to better optimize public transportation to their facilities. More companies are also enabling more workdays at home as well as providing incentives for carpooling Estates: Investments in building air tightness, insulation and energy efficient heating, cooling, lighting, plant and equipment can significantly reduce carbon footprints Green procurement: It is possible to reduce your carbon footprint by paying more attention to your own procurement. Supplier carbon footprint, ISO certifications, procurement distance have to be part of the selection criterias. Conceptual framework Greening the inbound function It is argued that greening the supply chain has numerous benefits to an organization, ranging from cost reduction, to integrating suppliers in a participative decision-making process that promotes environmental innovation (Bowen et al., 2001; Hall, 1993; Rao, 2002). Critical parts of the inbound function are the purchasing and supply field. Green purchasing strategies are adopted by organizations in response to the increasing global concerns of environmental sustainability. The Green purchasing should be able address reduction of waste produced, material substitution through environmental sourcing of raw materials, and waste minimization of hazardous materials. (Rao Holt, 2005) The involvement and support of suppliers is crucial to achieving such goals. (Vachon and Klassen, 2006). Furthermore, organizations are managing more and more their suppliers environmental performance to ensure that the materials and equipments supplied by them are environmentally-friendly in nature and are produced using environmentally-friendly processes. Min and Galle (1997) explore green purchasing to determine the key factors affecting a buying firms choice of suppliers, the key barriers and the obstacles to green purchasing initiatives. They also investigated the impact of green purchasing on a corporations environmental goals. Below listed subjects to get information on the green inbound phase of a supply chain: (1) Guiding suppliers to set up their own environmental programs; (2) bringing together suppliers in the same industry to share their know-how and problems; (3) informing suppliers about the benefits of cleaner production and technologies; (4) urging/pressuring suppliers to take environmental actions; and (5) choice of suppliers by environmental criteria. Greening the production phase or the internal supply chain In this phase, there are a number of concepts that can be explored, such as cleaner production, design for environment, remanufacturing and lean production. Hong, He-Boong, Jungbae Roh, (2009) highlight through their research that strategic green management needs the combination of integrated product development (IPD) and supply chain coordination (SCC) for desired business outcomes. Thanks to a survey on 580 manufacturing plants in the US, adopting cleaner production techniques, Florida and Davison (2001) showed that green corporations are innovative in their environmental practices, and these strategies emerge from a real commitment towards reducing waste and pollution. Lean production/manufacturing is also an important consideration in reducing the environmental impact of the production phase. In their research King and Lenox (2001), concludes that lean production is complementary to improvements in environmental performance and it often lowers the marginal cost of pollution reduction thus enhancing competitiveness. In addition, Rothenberg et al. (2001) identify that lean plants aim to minimize waste and buffers, leading not only to reduce buffers in environmental technology and management, but also in an overall approach to manufacturing that minimizes waste products. (1) Environment-friendly raw materials; (2) substitution of environmentally questionable materials; (3) taking environmental criteria into consideration; (4) environmental design considerations; (5) optimization of process to reduce solid waste and emissions; (6) use of cleaner technology processes to make savings in energy, water, and waste; (7) internal recycling of materials within the production phase; and (8) incorporating environmental total quality management principles such as worker empowerment. Greening the outbound function On the outbound side of the green supply chain, green logistics comprises all links from the manufacturer to the end users and includes products, processes, packaging, transport, and disposal (Skjoett-Larsen, 2000). Rao, (2003) and Sarkis, (1999) argue on the fact that green marketing, environment-friendly packaging, and environment-friendly distribution, are all initiatives that might improve the environmental performance of an organization and its supply chain. Reverse logistics and waste exchange and ore generally management of wastes in the outbound function can lead to cost savings and enhanced competitiveness (Rao, 2003). In order to address these environmental impacts of packaging, many countries now have programs and legislation that aims to minimize the amount of packaging that enters the waste stream, such as the Packaging Directive in the EU. The distribution, for the whole supply chain is a huge stake for green management. In fact the distribution results of a trade-off between efficiency and effectiveness firm strategy. For this reason is difficult to handle As part of outbound logistics, green marketing has an important part to play in the link between environmental innovation and competitive advantage (Menon and Menon, 1997). Encouraging suppliers to take back packaging is a form of reverse logistics that can be an important consideration in greening the outbound function, with a study by Dorn (1996) identifying an increase in market share amongst companies that implemented an environmentally-friendly packaging scheme. The product design step is more and more integrated within green supply chain issues because 80% of the environmental burden and cost of a product is fixed during this phase (Carbone, Moatti, 2008). Strategic variables to take in account for an empirical study; (1) Environment-friendly waste management; (2) environmental improvement of packaging; (3) taking back packaging; (4) eco-labeling; (5) recovery of companys end-of-life products; (6) providing consumers with information on environmental friendly products and/or production methods; and (7) use of environmentally-friendly transportation. Competitiveness Economic performance Bacallan (2000) suggests that organizations are enhancing their competitiveness through improvements in their environmental performance to comply with mounting environmental regulations, to address the environmental concerns of their customers (à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦). However, an interesting point to notice is that, as long as the market does not seek environmental value-drivers in the products and services it purchases, environmental issues are not necessarily considered by organizations and consumers. (Rao Holt, 2005) Fortunately, over the last few years there has been a growth in environmental awareness of consumers in general. Clearly a growing number of corporations are developing company-wide environmental programs and green products sourced from markets around the world. Therefore, environmental issues are becoming a source of competitiveness. All these efforts aim to improve environmental performance, enhance corporate image, reduce costs, reduce risks of non-compliance and improve marketing advantage. Nevertheless, some organizations are still looking upon green initiatives as involving trade-offs between environmental performance and economic performance. The financial performance of firms is affected by environmental performance in a variety of ways. When waste, both hazardous and non-hazardous, is minimized as part of environmental management, it results in better utilization of natural resources, improved efficiency, higher productivity and reduces operating costs (Rao Holt, 2005). Nowadays and in the future, a good green player could expect to increase its brand image and its market share and then improve its profitability against company without enough green concern while saving costs by innovative processes. To investigate the link between green supply chain management and economic performance we could refers to those key aspects: (1) New market opportunities; (2) product price increase; (3) profit margin;(4) sales; and (5) market share. And competitiveness: (1) Improved efficiency; (2) quality improvement; (3) productivity improvement; and (4) cost savings. Methodology To validate our research, an empirical, survey-based research approach will be taken. Based on the empirical studies through the literature, and a meaningful framework used in the relevant research of Rao Holt in 2005 applied on Asian companies. We choose to follow a common technique to validate the framework presented in the preceding section, a linear SEM (Stochastic Expectation Maximization) approach is used (JÃÆ' ¶reskog and SÃÆ' ¶rbom, 1993) to validate the causal relationships between the different latent constructs of: greening the inbound function; greening production; greening the outbound function; competitiveness and; economic performance. The questionnaire will be distributed to the supply chain managers and/or environmental management representative (EMR) or the chief executive of manufacturing organizations in Western Europe. In order to have both MNCs and SMEs ( Responses will be collected on a four-point and five-point Likert scale, and open-ended questions. The four-point scale served to force the respondents to check either on the negative side or on the positive side. The choice not to focus only on the leading edge ISO14001 accredited organizations (running environmental management) allow us to broader our research and then make a comparison between those without formal environmental management accreditation, and best players accredited. In terms of financial performance, this strategy will be interesting for identifying benefits and again do comparisons. Expected results. As this type of research was already done in South-Est Asia, our results will allow us to compare our findings and trend with those in South-Est Asia. We expect a response of 10%, therefore we will send to a consequent sample to get sufficient and tangible return. We will probably be able to confirm that greening the supply chain also has potential to lead to competitiveness and economic performance. As the current environmental concern in Europe is high, including governmental and customers pressures these research findings would probably show that firms that are greening their supply chains not only achieve substantial cost savings, but also enhance either sales, market share or exploit new market opportunities. The cost aspect will be important to assess as it is directly connected to the overall performance. The main limitation of this research will be probably the small sample of organizations, but the lack of empirical research in Europe will be also one of the main strengths of this paper. Therefore, the findings cannot be generalized to all organizations in this region or around the world. Finally, future research should empirically test the relationships suggested in this paper in different countries, to enable comparative studies. For further research, a larger sample will allow detailed cross-sectoral comparisons and establish international patterns regarding benefits from GSCM. Performance Measurement for Green Supply chain management: Context In supply chains with multiple actors, (vendors manufacturers, distributors and retailers) whether regionally or globally dispersed, it is difficult to attribute performance results to one particular entity within the chain, by the way performance measurement is really challenging. There are difficulties in measuring performance within organizations and even more difficulties arise in inter-organizational environmental performance measurement. The reasons for lack of systems to measure performance across organizations are multidimensional, including non-standardized data, poor technological integration, geographical and cultural differences, differences in organizational policy, lack of agreed upon metrics, or poor understanding of the need for inter-organizational performance measurement. (Hervani, A. Helms, M. Sarkis, J., 2005) Performance measurement in supply chains is difficult for additional reasons, especially when looking at numerous tiers within a supply chain, and green supply chain management performance measurement, or GSCM/PM, is virtually non-existent. With these barriers and difficulties in mind, GSCM/PM is needed for a number of reasons (including regulatory, marketing and competitiveness reasons). Overcoming these barriers is not a trivial issue, but the long-term sustainability (environmental and otherwise) and competitiveness of organizations may rely on successful adoption of GSCM/PM. The basic purposes of GSCM/PM are: external reporting (economic rent), internal control (managing the business better) and internal analysis (understanding the business better and continuous improvement). These are the fundamental issues that drive the development of frameworks for business performance measurement. It is important to consider both purpose, as well as the interrelationships of these various measurements. Supply chain management Supply chain management is the coordination and management of a complex network of activities involved in delivering a finished product to the end-user or customer. It is a vital business function and the process includes sourcing raw materials and parts, manufacturing and assembling products, storage, order entry and tracking, distribution through the various channels and finally delivery to the customer. A companys supply chain structure consists of external suppliers, internal functions of the company, and external distributors, as well as customers (commercial or end-user). Firms may be members of multiple supply chains simultaneously. The management and coordination is further complicated by global players spread across geographic boundaries and multiple time zones. The successful management of a supply chain is also influenced by customer expectations, globalization, information technology, government regulation, competition and the environment. Performance management and measurement Corporate performance measurement and its application continue to grow and encompass both quantitative and qualitative measurements and approaches. The variety and level of performance measures depends greatly on the goal of the organization or the individual strategic business units characteristics. For example, when measuring performance, companies must consider existing financial measures such as return on investment, profitability, market share and revenue growth at a more competitive and strategic level. Other measures such as customer service and inventory performance (supply, turnover) are more operationally focused, but may necessarily be linked to strategic level measures and issues. Overall, these difficulties in developing standards for performance measurement are traced to the various measurement taxonomies. Example taxonomic considerations include: management level to measure à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â‚¬Å" strategic, tactical, or operational; tangible versus intangible measures; variations in collection and reporting; an organizations location along the supply chain or functional differentiation within organizations (e.g. accounting, versus marketing or operations). Similar to the performance measurement used, the performance measurement system may be unique to each individual organization, or unit within an organization, reflecting its fundamental purpose and its environment. Several studies have investigated the universal principles of performance measurement (Adams et al., 1995; Gunasekaran et al., 2001; Sink and Tuttle, 1990). These studies arrived at a number of conclus