Tuesday, April 30, 2019
2 - subsidization Examplethis report looks at the various risks associated with both the money market and capital market in addition to a comparison with the existing market data. Final recommendations are also provided in dizzy of the risks and benefits identified.These refer to the elements of financial markets that mature within a short time, usually within one stratum or less. Otherwise known as debt securities, they are main(prenominal)ly issued to individuals interested in obtaining short-term financing. In essence, the money market is specifically the financial market for short term liquidity within the internationalist financial system. It is made up of various parties that are classified as borrowers and lenders as per their activity in the market. These parties also include the financial intermediaries, the companies, and the treasury that issues the telecommunication net bleed in the primary market. One of the main features of the money market securities is their liqu idity, and the fact that they can easily be sold in a inessential market. The following are the major features of the money market instrumentsTreasury Bills this is a way that the US establishment uses to generate money from the public. They are sold at a certain discount below their formulation value and can be issued with different maturity rates such as one, three, or half a dozen months.T-bills have certain advantages such that they are generally affordable repayable to their discounts. They are also the safest securities due to their backing by the US government. In addition they are exempted from both state and local taxes.T-bills work in such a manner that an investor can submit competitive or non-competitive bids for which they receive proficient amounts of the determined securities. For competitive bidding, one submits the return they would like to receive. Consequently, a higher return might sozzled no limited securities.Commercial paper this refers to a short-ter m loan that a corporation issues in order that it may finance inventories. It
Monday, April 29, 2019
Discussion - Essay ExampleTherefore, in order of battle to build a electric shavers rapport with literacy, it is imperative that the social and agriculture capital of childrens engagement with one another is appreciated. Literacy should be perceived as a social practice. This is the way we bath achieve expertise on the use of emerging technology that is required in the profession, and is also the call for of the present age. Educationalists have conventionally been reluctant to include the normal culture in their pedagogy because it is believed that the fashionable culture is based on the themes of sexism, racism and violence. Corporate media has always highlighted Black youth culture as the basis of sexism in the troupe (Rhymes, 2007). In my professional practice, when I would be working with children and families, I ordain incorporate popular culture in my pedagogy, though I would make sure that I see the children how to criticize and reject the negative elements of the p opular culture and appreciate and adopt the positive ones. Reflection upon kin mate 2s presentation In the contemporary age, technology is being increasingly apply in the educational setup for pedagogical purposes. Websites have made it easy for teachers and parents to make the children learn alphabets and figures. research has shown that incorporation of popular culture into pedagogy boosts a childs interest in studies and the childs critical thinking and analyzing skills are polished. However, some teachers are reluctant to incorporate popular culture into their pedagogy because popular culture considers man superior to woman, frequently projects adult material and promotes racism. There has occurred a lot of debate on the violent video games as the cause violence in the hunting lodge (Sternheimer, 2009). Also, mass media has always been influencing white Ameri atomic number 50s perceptions of the African Americans (Balkaran, 1999). Bianca et al. (2011) have favored the popula r culture and have say that it should be wisely apply to gain maximum benefits. Popular culture must be used in child education so that the children can be made aware of the controversial issues of the society at a very young age. This is conducive for the development of their better understanding of the society and they can behave as responsible citizens when they grow up. As I discussed before, I shall definitely incorporate popular culture in early child education because it would not only help me making the children learn, tho would also improve the quality of education, not to mention that I would be very prudent in the selection of material. References Anon. (n.d.). Pop Culture. Retrieved from http//english.berkeley.edu/Postwar/pop.html. Balkaran, S. (1999). Mass Media and Racism. The Yale Political Quarterly. 21(1). Retrieved from http//www.yale.edu/ypq/articles/oct99/oct99b.html. Bianca, Melissa, Sarah, and Rebecca. (2011). Popular Culture and Literacy. Powerpoint. Jaksic , A., Fulton, H., Capps, S., Jacobs, D., Sultani, M., and Stojcevska, M. (2011). Popular Culture. Powerpoint. Rhymes, E. (2007). snow-clad Culture Sexism, Racism and Violence. Retrieved from http//www.africaresource.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=277white-culture-sexism-racism-and-violence&catid=136race&Itemid=351. Sternheimer, K., (2009). Connecting Social Problems and Popular Culture why Media is not the Answer. Retrieved from
Sunday, April 28, 2019
A Literature palingenesis on Consumer Voluntary Disposition - Essay Exampleuct dominant to consumer dominant has bought such reorientation on customer focus (Kohli and Jaworski, 1990, p.3) requires sophisticated understanding of consumer behaviours (Nwankwo, 1995). Consequently, the field of consumer research (Belk, 1986 cited in Holbrook, 1995) becomes an increasingly important fixings to marketing discipline than ever before.According to consumer culture theory (CCT), consumer research investigates/studies the contextual, symbolic, and experiential aspects of consumption as they unfold across a consumption cycle that includes acquisition, consumption and possession, and magnetic dip processes and analysis of these phenomena from macro-, meso-, and micro- theoretical perspectives (Arnould and Thompson, 2005, p.871).This thing is important because, firstly, many inclining decisions have economic consequences for both the individual and society. Some (eg., when and how to proper ly toss away outdated prescription drugs) even have important health and safety ramifications. Secondly, since much purchase behaviour is cyclical, a variety of marketing implications can emanate from an understanding of the disposition subprocess. Thirdly, in an age of sex act scarcity in which we can no longer afford the luxury of squandering resources, understanding disposition decisions and behaviour is logically prerequisite for effective environmental conservation environmental implication (Jacoby, 1978).The rest of this authorship first examines the definition of disposition, followed by an integrative review on disposition typologies, methodological issues, and factors that determine disposition by consumers. Finally, the status of the literature and implications for future research in the area are discussed.Disposal has been specify diversely by different researchers. A product will be disposed under different situations. Some will contend that as soon as an owner rel inquishes the possession of an appliance, (Jacoby 1978) there is
Saturday, April 27, 2019
Metropolitan Museum of Art - Essay ExampleIt does not contain the ethereal quality of foregoing paintings of the time period of the same subject, where the quality of light and brushstrokes portrayed a beatific reality (Harden 2008). This is an scratch which must be meticulously produced with ink, compass and ruler and the initial impression of the work is one of preciseness (Harden 2008). However, Durer is able to capture a new variation in the work that expresses the harmonious quality of the garden of Eden and Adam and evens relationship to each other and their surroundings. As the eye enters the work, one can pull in the how opposites are harmoniously existing. A mouse is relaxing next to a cat, an elk and cow do not fear the humans in the picture, and the tree of knowledge is contained in the background, with the serpent giving Eve the fruit and Adam waiting to receive it. All is peaceful. Here, Durer expresses in black and white the harmonious materialisation of opposites, soon to be destroyed with the taking of the forbid fruit. The work is one of bold expression and the metier and succinct lines and use of black and white stand out as a first in operativeic expression of the Garden prior to the fire up.Giovanni di Paolo, an Italian artist, created The Creation and Expulsion of Adam and Eve from promised land in 1445. Here we see the angst inherent in the fall of man from paradise after the forbidden fruit is tasted. Paolo is an expressive artist who uses elements of design to symbolize the aspects of the harmony of the Garden and the devastation of the fall from grace. god is shown in radiant fury pushing the universe, represented by a very large world that is entering from the left side of the painting and expresses the power of the universe that God has created and is now directed with wrath. In the globe, the evidence of astrology is found within the concentric circles representing the elements, the planets and the constellations (Metropoli tan Museum of Art 2008). Adam and Eve are existence directed, seemingly pushed also, by an angel who is in human form. The lush vegetation of the garden and the four rivers appear from the ground symbolize the ecological wealth and harmony of the garden, which Adam and Eve are now oblige to leave. The medium is tempura on panel and a dark light is effectively used near the trees and on the ground to give the painting an emotional quality of impending negativity and hardship. This painting, previous to Durers engraving, illustrates the gravity of artists representing the fall of man in artwork with dark colors and vivid use of brushstrokes to express Gods seriousness. Saint Teresa of Avila Interceding Souls in Purgatory is oil on wood painting by Peter Paul Rubens, a Flemish artist dated between 1577 and 1640 (Metropolitan Museum of Art 2008). This work is dramatic and emotional and shows how the skilled use of oil captures a quality of light and brushstroke that effectively portr ays the seriousness of the task at hand. Saint Teresa to the right of Jesus is shown lie down and pleading for the souls praying for release from purgatory at the bottom of the wood. On the left are the cherubs, angels of God that seem to be waiting for a decision from Jesus as to the faint of who they will aid in rescue. unitary is
Friday, April 26, 2019
morals PAPER - Essay ExampleThe head nurse feels that these patients are frequently hospitalized and transferring them would distress them. Here, the chief house physician is looking to serve personal interest of his pediatricians at the cost of snubbing the health hazards of existing patients. The ethical dilemma in this case is base on deontological or work bound ethics that emphasizes on performing morally and coherently along with conducting tasks and responsibilities in a rational manner. The fundamental ethical dominions for nurses state that patients should be respected for human dignity and should be taken care in a compassionate way. However, transferring the patients pang from cystic fibrosis to an different ward cannot be considered as an ethical move especially when the reason cited is based on offering space to pediatricians. It is important to consider the health issue of patients and accordingly taking steps rather than serving and promoting self and personal interest. At the same time, this situation fails to serve the utilitarian principle as it does not offer pleasure to majority of people and thus can be considered as a major ethical issue that needs to be assessed and analyzed well in consecrate to offer mutual benefits and advantages (Rosen, 2003). 2. The important issues in this scenario are conflict of interest for nurses and deontological and duty bound ethics. At times, nurses are entangled in a situation and scenario where there is a conflict between the expectations of patients and buy the farm authority. The chief resident wants few patients to get transferred to another ward while the head nurse feels the other way. This shows that there is a conflict in terms of handling and understanding the situation. At the same time, deontological and duty bound ethics state that every individual should perform his tasks and responsibilities by being moral and ethical. The dustup ethical and moral are used throughout in the code of ethics for nurses and hold cracking importance and value. Ethics define what is right and wrong and moral defines personal attributes and intentions that have to be rational and positive offering mutual benefits and advantages
Thursday, April 25, 2019
Digital Marketing - Essay ExampleDigital marketing dodge for GAME which is a UK based gaming retail organization which commenced its operations under the ownership of The biz Group Plc. in 1991. By briefly evaluating the current digital marketing activities of the tighten, the content of this comprehend is control through the identification of limitations in the organizations current digital marketing policies so as to generate an examination on how the firm can improve its strategy for fulfilling organizational objectives.Furthermore, the report in addition draws the establishment of an effective and successful digital marketing strategy by focusing on backdrop SMART objectives. According to Richman (2011), the establishment of precise and well-defined organizational objectives is important for acknowledging and taking into account what the firm hopes to achieve by the implementation of a specific strategy. Thus, the groomting of objectives must fulfill the criterion that has been set by SMART objectives such that the aims should be Specific, Measurable, Agreed Upon, Realistic and Time/Cost limited (Richman 2011, p. 65).With touch on to the prior assessment which was conducted in relation with GAMES current digital marketing strategy, the conclusions of the report were able to establish that the organizations website is marked and characterized by certain limitations and weaknesses that must be intercommunicate effectively and immediately as a part of the enhancement and improvement measures in GAMEs present digital marketing policy.Most importantly, the conclusions of the report were able to outline that while the organizations website provides potential visitors with an extensive amount of information on the homepage, there are several weaknesses in website functionality and features which whitethorn be preventing visitors from fully accessing online material and benefitting from the availability of the medium. From a concise perspective, it can be identified that problems in GAMES
Next Generation Air Transport System - enquiry Paper ExampleIt is the responsibility of Joint Planning and Development Office (JPDO) to manage public-private partnership in order to make NextGen be in operation by 2025. National Aeronautical and Space government (NASA) is given the responsibility of undertaking all the research required for implementation of this system. All these three organizations prevent to face a number of challenges when moving forward with the NextGen Implementation. According to Dilligham (2007), FAA continues facing questions about its management expertise in relation to implementing NextGen system. NextGen is a comprehensive initiative that involves the development of new technology and leveraging the animated ones to better air transport and therefore enables it to handle the future expected demands (JPDO, 2012). According to Boehm-Davis (2008), this system is an physical exercise of active networking technology that updates itself with real-time shar ed information. It is tailored to the individual needs of all U.S. aircrafts. This system if the right way implemented will enhance safety, reduce delays, save fuel, and reduce aviations adverse environmental impact. According to JPDO (2011), this system will include satellite navigation and control of aircrafts, advanced digital communications, and heighten connectivity between all components of national air transportation system. One of its key components is an automatic dependent surveillance-broadcast (ADS-B) which is targeted to set back the radar dishes used by the current system. Other key components are digital non-voice communication, advanced networking, network-enabled, network-centric operation, and a layered adaptive security system (Boehm-Davis, 2008). These technological components will be implemented both on the ground and on air to assist both air traffic controllers and the pilots in air navigation.
Wednesday, April 24, 2019
TOMS Shoes and its blackball Impacts as a Humanitarian Aid Organisation - Essay ExampleAnd of course, this is exactly what TOMS shoes does. This course of instruction targets children in Africa with an intention to help curb some health wall sockets associated with lack shoes in Africa. However, this humanitarian model for TOMS has economic impacts on the African continent. Apart from not being able to solve the issue it is meant to solve, it gives rise to at least two economic problems.The assumption on which the argument against supporter is establish on is that these poor people would be able to buy the locally produced shoes if the local enterprises were back up and helped to get the technology to produce cost-effectively and thus transfer these cost savings to the local people. This however, as Glennie (2009) argues, is not necessarily entirely true because aid programs such as TOMS shoes program operate nether the presumption that the beneficiaries would not afford to buy their own shows even if they were produced locally and sold to them cheaply. The argument close to this can be a philosophical one and depends on the perspective one decides to take.As easter (2007) says, humanitarian aid in Africa has for a long time been accused of crippling economic harvest in the African continent. For instance, the results of a research done in 2008 indicated that the donation of second hand costume to African nations proved to be responsible for the reduction of employment by at least 50% in the respective industry (Favini, 2013). Growth experts exact also indicated that the only real opportunity for ontogeny is the support of local manufacturers in order to create jobs for the many jobless people in the continent. What aid programs such as the TOMS shoes buy-one-give-one program are doing to Africa is that they are flooding the local economies with free items which have been made outside the continent, thus killing off market for
Tuesday, April 23, 2019
hot seat Reagan - Essay ExamplePresident Reagan was a firm believer in this methodology and almost immediately set to work on dismantling government entitlement programs when he signed the Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act (OBRA). OBRA served to cut federal official funding programs for the deplorable as well as inducements for states to provide funding. Unfortunately, crude funding for programs was not equal to revolutionize the upbeat programs in the way that conservative ideologues desired. In order to completely undermine the forward system of entitlements to the poor, the Reagan administration began to use tax reform as a method of undercutting welfare.By cutting taxes and instituting such concepts as the Earned Income Credit, Reagan gave the appearance of helping poor families, but the tax cut gains just now made up for the loss in benefits the poor no longer received because of cuts and changes to entitlement programs. Throughout the Reagan presidency, cuts and rollback s to welfare programs were systematically enacted even as the income gap between the richest and poorest Americans reached peak proportions. While the wealthy were benefiting from tax cuts, the poor were actually losing ground because of them.
Monday, April 22, 2019
MBA in Marketing Admission - Essay ExampleAdvertising refers to the various media utilise to convey your message. Printed advertisement, radio air time, television commercials and the Internet are all part of advertising that conveys your product line message to the public. Another definition, which lists more steps of marketing, is listed by bookzonepro.com (n.d.), this is the process of planning and executing the conception, pricing, promotion and dissemination of ideas, goods and services to satisfy customers.Since marketing can give a company a competitive advantage, I feel that understanding and knowing the business angles as well as the production techniques for advertising impart certainly help my career as a professional. Advertisers appeal to the lusts, desires, and wants of the target market or probable customer. Target market is the market segment to which a particular product is marketed. It is often defined by age, gender and/or socio-economic grouping, states Wikip edia encyclopedia (2006).
Sunday, April 21, 2019
Con positionr how economics of law understructure provide helpful insights into controlling an increase in nuisance rates - Essay Example match to Bodell & Kerton (1995) The higher the cost of being detected, the lower is the evaluate profit (Bodell & Kerton, 1995) This refers to the notion that offenders atomic number 18 always at risk, therefore they expect higher profit with greater rate of risk involved in committing crime. thusly they might use an accomplice to watch for police, buy more sophisticated equipment to break into cars more quickly, and so on On the other hand, some potential offenders find that the expected reward from crime is less than the expected cost.Similarly, if the opportunity which knocks at the door of offender which costs his devoted time to criminal activity, potential offenders are likely to reduce their criminal activity. The greater the opportunity, the higher would be the cost, thus we expect the supply of crime to decrease when good jobs in the legitimate sector are plentiful, and to increase when unemployment is high. In fact, several studies down confirmed this theory, by showing that crime rises and falls with the business cycle and the ups and downs of the economy.What about the demand side of the market? Potential victims can take costly actions such as installing burglar alarms, victorious cabs instead of walking in high-crime areas, purchasing defensive firearms, and taking lessons in self-defence. All of these activities might furbish up the potential victims chances of being victimised. Although potential victims do not actually demand crime, they do demand-and devote considerable resources to trying to achieve-reductions in their chances of being victimised. This is the reason for why they demand less crime. nevertheless according to Kopcke et al (2004) Workers react this way even if demand declines temporarily (Kopcke et al, 2004) refers to the notion that even if the local anaesthetic authorities go on wi th penalties and punishments, that would not completely deter offenders.
Saturday, April 20, 2019
Pediatric C ar Plan - look for Paper Example592). In this case, the patients manifestations are fever, productive cough, diarrhea, and poor appetite any sewer be attributed to ALL and the ongoing chemotherapy. Explicitly, these infectious diseases have high chances of recurring. Specifically, recurrent fever can be the result of decreased function of WBC and rapid metabolism due to the deterioration of leukemic cells from chemotherapeutic agents (Huether & McCance, 2005, p. 592). Furthermore, leukemia affects blood cells, and many vital organs are affected with the changes in metabolism, oxygen supply and demand, and overall organ function (Ignatavicius & Workman, 2006, p. 898). In fact, leukemic cells are likely to cause infiltrations to other organs, further causing lymphadenopathy, inflammation, and neoplasms (Conter et al., 2004). This is notability in this patient who also has a history of neoplasm. Generally, the care and management for this patient demands conservative j udicatory of medications (esp. antibiotics) and responsible monitoring of drug reactions and incompatibilities. As in this case, the patient has a history of allergies from numerous medications (Dimetapp, Pseudoephedrine). This condition, in turn, affects not only the patient but the whole family in terms of financial and emotional challenge. daytime 1 Skin is pale and cool to touch, especially on areas around the mouth, face, palm creases, and in the savage beds. There is a thin film of sweat on the patients forehead, axillaries, and neck areas. Rashes are noted on the trunk and upper arms. enduring is complaining of mild itchiness on his office and abdomen. Minor scratches around the trunk with varying degrees of healing are observed. Petechiae are noted on the disappoint legs and feet.Eyes The eyes are symmetrical in appearance. The conjunctivae are pale. PERRLA noted. Eyes are not icteric. Patient reports no blurring of vision, or any
Friday, April 19, 2019
Classmates Evaluation - Personal State manpowert ExampleDonald embrown At first, Donald seems to be just an ordinary classmate with nothing really special about him. However, as time went by I notice a characteristic which fructifys him apart from a typical student. unlike from the rest of us, I can say that he has deep sense of responsibility making him punctual in submitting individual requirements and his tasks for group projects.Arosha Desilva Arosha is one of a kind and deviates from my expectations of what a typical guy should be like. First of all, he disproves my misconception that organization is out of a mans vocabulary. Seeing his lecture notebook and handouts for the first time, am amazed at how systematic he can be. Second, I always thought women should be nurturing and men should be authoritative. But not with him-having him in my group is an honor because he was always there to realise me especially at times when I am losing my confidence. His calm personality enabl es him to manage stress and helps me concenter on the job at hand. This trait stood out while we were on the process of writing the piece of music and juggling it with our other individual requirements. Lastly, who says all guys are more tech savvy than girls Well, e genuinelyone has his own set of strengths and weaknesses. Computer skill is definitely not of Aroshas strong points.Sean Detorres Sean Sean Detorres Sean is someone I can never allow in this class. I admire him for his helpfulness and sincerity. Being on the same team as a compiler with him, I project seen how transparent he is with his feelings. Among my group mates, there have been instances that Sean and I have dissenting opinions about matters. I have to admit that I sometimes find his opinion instead irrational and unprofessional. I do appreciate how Sean shows his true feeling of disagreement on me, because it made me know my flaws. However, I do wish Sean could have come up and talk with me in person and p ermit me know what he is experiencing from me instead of just covering his dislike. I am thinking that maybe he is not just that vocal and has problems verbally communicating his feelings and emotions thus, he just resort on showing them. This is a room for improvement for him. I believe that he should work on his communication skills in order for him to effectively and professionally deal with his colleagues. Joshua Feng I can say that Joshua has two good points-he is very smart as well as very articulate. During the class, he has been able to show his knowledge and skills in tackling different topics. I believe that these capabilities are really exceptional. I have noted that even though some people are smart, they do not have the capacity to share what they know. This is not the shimmy with Joshua-he s knowledgeable and is very willing and articulate to communicate what he knows. However, I should also resume that he is lazy and like to procrastinate at times. Well this can be justified by his efficiency and adeptness which enables him to tackle tasks in no time. When he starts doing his work, I am amazed how at fast and well written he is. Without his laziness, I am sure he will create a influential leader.
Thursday, April 18, 2019
Strategic Marketing - Essay ExampleImpact from uncontrollable variables such as Political, Economic, Social and Technological factors as well as Customers, Competitors, Suppliers, Publics and the companys internal surroundings needs to be managed so that the opportunities are capitalised upon while countering any adverse effects. Managing the controllable variables in a company involves the managing of the marketing process. Marketing process involves identifying the consumer needs, selecting the need segments, which the company aims to cater to, and focusing on the selected segments with a well formulated marketing mix. The report aims at evaluating the controllable variables a company uses in face-off the needs of its business environment and analyse the similarities and contrasts between the controllable variables being utilised by ii companies engaged in manufacturing and exporting of home accessories to the UK market. The deuce companies chosen are Zeba Group from India and J.D.Lighting Factory from China. The synopsis will also address the importance levels of each controllable variable to the two companies.With the rapid globalisation process and the increased level of Free Trade, the number of well established exporters to the European countries from Asia has increased good over the past decade. The two Asian export giants, India and China are pursuing their export drives precipitously and with the right mix of marketing elements, some companies have become established suppliers to some of the most advanced consumer markets in the world such as the UK. Zeba Group from India and J.D. Lighting Factory from China are two such examples of companies that have been successful in marketing their products in the UK home accessory market.Zeba Group, established in 1986 caters to many of the European and American markets with carpets, linens, quilts, cushions and a range of table and bed linen under its experience brand name. The products are made availa ble through a host of
Web Literacy for Educators - strive ExampleURLs provide us with the ways in which the site is organized. Extensions much(prenominal) as .org, .com, .edu, and country codes such as .mx for Mexico suggest that the website is owned either by the government or any private organization. However, sharp-sightedness and critical thinking are needed in discerning the accuracy and validity of the site because anyone crowd out choose and buy their own domain names. In addition, reading URLs also gives the researcher the ability to shortened (November 12). By truncating, the researcher can go affirm to the home page by deleting sub domains in the address bar for easier navigation. November explains the importance and ways of reading URL (12). URLs provide us with the ways in which the site is organized. Extensions such as .org, .com, .edu, and country codes such as .mx for Mexico suggest that the website is owned either by the government or any private organization. However, keenness and c ritical thinking are needed in discerning the accuracy and validity of the site because anyone can choose and buy their own domain names. In addition, reading URLs also gives the researcher the ability to truncate (November 12). By truncating, the researcher can go back to the home page by deleting sub domains in the address bar for easier navigation. Knowledge of the rules and Internet grammar is truly important in advancing literacy among children in todays generation because admittedly, the Internet has now give-up the ghost the modern library.
Wednesday, April 17, 2019
Solution of trhee question - Essay ExampleSeparating the posts of chairman and CEO mainly helps in distributing the sense of balance of power and responsibilities. Board is the primary internal control mechanism for aligning the different interests of shareholders and top management. When an somebody serves simultaneously as chairman and CEO, the Boards control over him will be weakened. This does non happen when the roles are separated.The role of Chairman includes managing the business of the Board and monitoring its progress. Non-segregation of duties of Chairman and CEO would dilute the monitoring effectiveness over the management of the company.Opportunistic executives may take advantage of their combined role as Chairman and CEO in order to personally benefit at the expense of the shareholders. The chances of such injustice would reduce to an extent if the roles are separated.Having a single leader instead of two helps fire effective action by the CEO speeding up response to external events faced by the company. Separation of roles could lead to delays in such response.(iv) The main reason for any company to issue its rights shares at a discount is to make the offer relatively attractive to shareholders and encourage them either to take up their rights or sell them so the share issue is fully subscribed. The price discount similarly acts as a safeguard should the market price of the companys shares fall before the issue is completed. The existing shareholders or purchaser of rights would still be interested in subscribing for the shares so far as the subscription price corpse lower than the market price of the shares.A company would prefer to use rights issue as a source of finance because the chances of the shares being fully subscribed under rights issue is higher when compared to shares being impertinently issued in the market.A firm can grow in two ways either by merging with or
Tuesday, April 16, 2019
Theoretical Approaches EssayIt is of necessity that the female gender creates thoroughgoing aspects in the interaction with the others and the general social structures of the society. Feminism is perhaps a contagious portfolio which recoups an attractive standoff with the other members of the society. Been a female is viewed a critical endeavor in the strength and physical composition of the family which because creates the basic environment for the contemporary strength of the society. Females be viewed as important in the procreation performance and are theoretically deemed as performing a more persuasive role in the formation of the family than the men. Feminism is associated with vibrant models of specialty that are based on concerns of virtues and good morals. At one level, females are viewed as sources of unity, love, lovers of harmony, weak in sexual motivations and generally compounded by the articulating variables that cushion them towards been dependable persons inside the society. As of importance, females are also viewed as risk in terms of emergencies, critical incidences, disadvantaged and and then relating to various weak aspects than the males. Therefore, the feminism aspects create modalities of association between the woman and the others within the society by the decree of their characteristic variables ( gradation, 2005, 33. Conceptually, the gender variable is not the only factor that creates the basics of understanding ones position. variant standpoints have stood as important components which shape the position and interaction of women within our cultural dispensations. Education, professionalism, social-cultural foundations, political sustenance and legal pronouncements are important concerns in shaping the modalities of the female functionality as dictated by the social structures. The codes, ethics and regulations of the society are perhaps important components that have also helped to shape this position. Women are bec ause influenced by the scopes of these aspects in the manner they interact with the other people and the contemporary social structures of the society. (Mark, 2005, 57)Work CitedMark Jackson. Women and the Society Theories and Models of their Functions and Roles. London, Routledge, 2005, pp.33, 57
Monday, April 15, 2019
Wuthering heights by Emily Bronte EssayWuthering Heights pen by Emily Bronte is a 19th snow gothic novel. The halt is the story of love and twisted relationships with a splash of heart ache and evil. Heathcliff and Catherine the main characters are supported by a range of early(a)s whom move with them to keep them apart. The novel has been widely read and made into several movies. The Masterpiece theater production of Wuthering Heights from 1996 is a good rendering, but there are several differences between the book and the movie. In the book Heathcliffs character is developed with complicated personality traits. He is brooding, angry, compassionate and loving. The movie on the other hand, Heathcliff is a bit softer not exactly the slanted skin gipsy you would be expecting. Tom portly the actor portraying Heathcliff gives a modern day performance of a softer and mellower person rather than the dark and broody character of the novel. The book also has a narrator a charact er named Lockwood.Lockwood is the character Bronte occasions to pass around the story along. Lockwood rents the Manor House from Heathcliff. He is rather ignorant gentleman, so he is not sleep togethering on being within the boundaries of Wuthering heights. The movie does not provide the audience with a narrator however, it provides the use of flashbacks to progress the story along. Bronte uses ghosts in the book Wuthering Heights they represent Heathcliffs emotions. For example the ghost of assassinated Catherine represents Heathcliffs crime and attaint. In the movie the director uses nightmares, ocular effects and music to represent the emotions of shame and guilt. Both allow the audience to understand the feelings of the character. Although two different representations are used the shame and the guilt of Heathcliff is understood by the audience.Both the book and movie convey the character in depth excited makeup. The physical aspects of the novel and the movie are diffe rent. In the novel Wuthering Heights word description of view allows the readers imagination to create. In the movie actual locations are used which give a more rig and detail oriented landscape. The castle used in the movie is dark brick and dates back to the 17th century and represents gloom. The movie also shows the viewer the gloomy surroundings of Wuthering Heights giving the audience a visual clue to the emotions of the character. Catherines daughters home Thrushcross Grange is portrayed as simple cottage allowing the audience to visualize peace of mind and happiness. The movie doesnt give the viewer excitement the way the book does therefore, it doesnt give that summon turning experience.The movie comes across as if Heathcliff is a demented man with a cross to pitch not really giving you the background of the story. While the book gives you the detail of the passion and betrayal that created this man. every last(predicate) the characters are more defined and developed b ecause of Brontes artistic writing style. The movie being trammel by time and other factors cant fully envelope the characters of book. In conclusion, I would take on a book over a movie. Brontes writing style is something that sparks the imagination and the readers are enthral by the tale from page one to the end. The movie only can offer a niggling time of entertainment. I rather have the adventure of a good read coming to know the story and characters over time with the flip of the pages. .
Sunday, April 14, 2019
educational Preparation in nursing EssayWith a consistent change in modernizing medicine, along with the act advancement in technology, continuing education in treat is essential for a variety of reasons. The gives main concern is providing safe, efficient, and effective unhurried boot with positive uncomplaining outcomes. This paper pull up stakes examine the differences in competencies between restrains active at an associate-degree level versus a baccalaureate-degree level, in order to depart an evidenced-based understanding of the variation in the educational preparation of nurses.An associate-degree nursing program usually takes place over the course of a two year fulfilment, providing the nurse with the confidence in skills and knowledge to be lay in an entry-level position upon graduation. These types of programs focus on preparing nurses for care settings including community hospitals and long-term care facilitiesand were traditionally designed to compensat e for the nursing shortage. A bachelor-degree nursing program typically takes place over a period of four academic years and is intended to prepare its graduates to practice nursing in leading and guidance positions in a number of care settings (Creasia Friberg, 2011, pp 25-27). A bachelor-degree program in nursing nominates a provided understand of not only the scientific and clinical nursing education, but also a more than in-depth overview of specialized skills including critical thinking, decision-making, communication, leadership, case management, and health promotion (The Impact of program line on Nursing Practice, 2012, para. 1).The American affiliation of Colleges of Nursing describes evidenced-based recommendations that explain that in order to respond to the demands of an evolving health care system and forgather the changing needs of patients, nurses must achieve higher levels of education (Fact Sheet Creating a More exceedingly fitting Nursing Workforce, 201 2, para. 5). The professional nurse holding a baccalaureate-level degree is watchful for a broader subroutine in patient care with a higher understanding of holistic treatment, community health, clinical research, and nursing leadership and management. The added course work provided in a baccalaureate program is designed to prepare the nurse for a broader scope of practice and a better understand of issues that affect patients and their health care, including cultural, economic, political, and social issues. Nurses with bachelor of Science in Nursing (BSN) degrees are well-prepared to meet the demands placed on todays nurse (The Impact of Education on Nursing Practice, 2012, para 1). Patient outcome are the principal for continuing education.The level of educational preparation required by a baccalaureate-degree nurse allows for more equip decision-making in approach to patient care situations. According to the American Association of Colleges of Nursing, In the October 2012 edit ion of Medical Care researchers from the University of Pennsylvania raise that surgical patients in Magnet hospitals had 14% lower odds of inpatient death within 30 days and 12% lower odds of failure-to-rescue compared with patients cared for in non-Magnet hospitals. The study authors conclude that these better outcomes were attributed in king-sized part to investments in highly qualified and improve nurses, including a higher pro segment of baccalaureate prepared nurses. (Fact Sheet Creating a More Highly Qualified Nursing Workforce, 2012, para. 9)With Magnet indicating a higher portion of baccalaureate nursing staff, it is determined that the nurse prepared at a bachelore-degree level is better prepared to approach a patient care situation with the capability of taking immediate action to provide better patient outcomes, than that of a nurse prepared at the associate-degree level. This goes to show that higher education has a strong impact on nursing practice. According to the American Association of Colleges of Nursing, a better educated nursing workforce will improve patient safety and enhance nursing care, decreasing mortality rateas there is a significant correlation between nurses educated at a bachelor-degree level and lower patient death rates (Fact Sheet Creating a More Highly Qualified Nursing Workforce, 2012).Through this research it is apparent that there is a significant connection between patient health care outcomes and the educational preparation of nurses. It is now established that the nurse prepared at a baccalaureate level is more readily capable of caring for critically ill patients working in situations requiring critical thinking, leadership, and decision-making and also taking roles in clinical aspects relevant to non-hospital settings. Researchers have identified improved patient safety and lower rates of patient morbidity and mortality lower levels of medication errors and procedural violations and few disciplinary actions for B SNs (Altmann, 2012, para 4).The need to wait education in nursing is on-going in order to continue to keep up with the changes in technology, advances in medicine, and to provide the best patient care. The Grand Canyon University philosophy for nursing education explains Baccalaureate nursing practice incorporates the roles of assessing, critical thinking, communicating, providing care, teaching, and leading. The caring professional approach includes the value of autonomy, altruism, human dignity, integrity and social justice with unconditional regard for all people.Nursing practice includes health promotion, disease prevention, early detection of health deviations, prompt and adequate treatment of the human response to penetrating and chronic illness, and compassionate care for those experiencing death. (Philosophy, n.d., para. 8) It is essential to maintain competency in nursing practice done the pursuit of continuing education. The difference between educational levels involv es clinical competencies in a variety of settings, decision-making skills, leadership roles, job opportunities, and most importantly overall patient outcomes. In order to provide the best care for patients, a higher education, and continuing increase in knowledge is essential.ReferencesAltmann, T. K. (2012). Nurses attitudes toward continuing formal education A comparison by level of education and geography. Nursing Education Perspectives, 33(2), 80-4. Retrieved from http//search.proquest.com/docview/1009642651?accountid=7374 Creasia, J. L., Friberg, E. (2011). Conceptual Foundations The Bridge to Professional Nursing Practice 5 (VitalSource Bookshelf), Retrieved from http//pageburstls.elsevier.com/books/978-0-323-06869-7/id/B9780323068697100029_p0150 Fact sheet Creating a more highly qualified nursing workforce. (2012, October 24). Retrieved November 8, 2012, from American Association of Colleges of Nursing
Saturday, April 13, 2019
Organization break EssayThe need for a tack is almost there on a daily basis in corporations. This is accentuated by particularly by the advent of newfangled technology like the internet and new counsel methods and new technologies (Wallace, 2007). This brings in new ways of doing jobs within the company and thus the oeuvreers be affected. Companies which initially used to ease up the traditional physical composition model have increasingly adopted they are better and more streamlined and modern transformed organizational models.An organization provides a mean of utilizing individual capabilities within a police squad to accomplish what cannot be achieved by the aggregate attempts of team members working in isolation. The aims of forming corporations and organizations are to deliver goods or assistances to consumers in a way that at the conclusion of the deal profits and not losses can be realized.Organizational change is geared at achieving this and thus winning t he hearts and minds of the stern population while concurrently bringing about a changed behavior and work culture to the partakers. In response to this Organizational transformation, roles, skills, job descriptions and structure of the workforce need to be re-designed. The southwesterly Gas smoke Such a company that has embraced organizational change from the traditional star to the modern organization transformation is the southern gas corporation of Nevada.Having realized that all organizations and corporations are unique due to unique environs in which they operate and their mode and ways of operations they should be structured to accommodate unique problems and opportunities Southwest Gas Corporation is a company eng come alongd in the business of purchasing, distributing and transporting natural gas to residential, mercenary and industrial customers in Nevada state of the southwestern United States. The Gas Corporation has employed about 2,500 workers who dress at least 1. 8million customers in Arizona, Nevada and parts of California states.The company is an investor owned utility whose shares are traded in the New York Stock Exchange and the pacific stock exchange (South West Gas Corporation, 2007). The company has been implementing a five year organizational transformation with an aim of offering better services to the customers and improving the spirit of he workers. With respect to transformation certain areas should be prioritized for instance in redefining the business model, integrating acquisitions, building infrastructure, reframing markets and managing talents.The southern gas corporation has taken comprehensive plan to change from the traditional to the transformed organizational model studies through with(p) on this company indicated that a positive correlation between the working conditions and the productivity of the workers exists . the results of the studies revealed that innate forces of human behavior may have a greater influe nce on organizations than do mechanistic incentive systems.In response to that study southern gas corporation have done an almost complete overhaul in areas to do with transport, billing, the accounting system, meter reading systems and the whole organization structure of the company since 2002. Effects Having undergone the organizational change to a more better and modern one saw a number of transformations in the work force. Every member of the workforce was subjected to month large refreshment training as a way of crating a new working atmosphere and as a way of orientating them to the new working tools. The remuneration package was revised to annex the team spirit of the workers.On the part of the infrastructure the offices and other working areas were renovated. The total reorganization of the offices this was to cater for the psychological grammatical construction of the workers The Organizations adopted a vertical division of labor practice involving the administrators th en below them the managers and supervisors and lastly at the base we have the workers. The principal function of covert level administrators or executives generally is to plan semipermanent strategy and administer the middle managers whose work is to guide the day to day activities of the corporations and oversee implementation of the top level strategy.Low-level supervisors and laborers put the made strategy into action and carry out the immediate tasks unavoidable to keep the corporation running. Thus, the South west gas corporation has be seminal fluid a formal with grapheme to the extent of formalization of rules that have been adopted within the organization structure. In formal organizations, a daft impersonal relationship between the workers and the company is viewed as the best environment suitable for achievements of organizations objectives by the managerial staff.Here subordinates duties more clearly defined and workforce with different applicable skills are dispensed duties to their areas of specialization in the corporation. It is the duties of workers at the bottom level to perform the essential duties of the corporation with supervisory assistance from the managers. Subordinate staff deals generally with supply and production chain of the corporation . The managerial needs of the whole business process is overseen by the higher cadre staff that includes the supervisors and the administrators.Two important implications into the change in the organization procedure there was equity due to just fair and impartial treatment of all workers, the organization was more orderly since employees were arranged where they would be of most value to the corporation. Initiative was fostered by encouraging the employees to act on their own. akin(predicate)ly the employees cultivated more attributes and etiquettes (South West Gas Corporation, 2007). Motivation should come from different incentives rather than letting monetary rewards be the sole motivators .The spirit of comradeship among the workers fostered devotion to a common cause. The behavioral change by the managers that allowed greater latitudes stimulated the workers. In general, transformation made workers to experience more productive. Having been provided with the best working conditions the workers employees have become capable of effective self-direction yielding self-actualization and this was among the biggest rewards that organizations has provided to its employees. Similar the shares of the southern gas company at the New York stock exchange gained value.Use of improved service delivery systems for instance the better gas safety management systems reduced the number of gas stroke cases recorded prior to the five year period. Due to a liberalized approach towards the workers in the by the management they were able to create their labour organization to looks for their own interests, thus enhancing growth of the labour union organizations. This amounted to increase in vocal power of the workers to demand their rights. Conclusion In the world today organizations are in operation(p) in an increasingly complex platform.Changing multiple dimensions and high rates globalization trends and the implications of the post-industrial information age are driving these corporations to revolutinalize themselves (Wallace, 2007). The end product of this transformation is a successful company with competent work force. However, organizational transformation should not stop with the end of the project duration. During the benefit realizations stage of the lifecycle, emphasis should be continued on the need to encourage the workers and the community to adapt to the new ways of working and get off the most from the system change.
Thursday, April 11, 2019
There is no Safety Without Risk and What You Risk Reveals What You Value EssayE actually unmatched at whizz time or an early(a)(prenominal) are faced with ch aloneenges that goes against what they know is the right thing to do. Sacrifices are a necessary part of life. We all have to make decisions as to what sacrifices and values we will give up in exchange to be accepted by a original affable class, age group, the community, the church, promotions, jobs and so on. Very emotionally vowelise passel are capable of giving up popularity and acceptance, and choosing isolation to keep their values. These state almost neer are persuaded to choose the premature path, be one of the crowd, giving in to peer pressure. Some people have their fears and personal conflicts that make their lives difficult because they act against their beliefs and do what others expect of them. No one crapper influence my personal beliefs or opinions. I am not impressed with money or status, do not wea r or purchase clothes-or on the other hand avoid wearing clothes-because everyone else wears certain fashions, or disapproves of what I am wearing. I am willing to pretend hatred, enmity, a certain status, social approval to keep my values. I determine peoples character by their behavior, not their age, neighborhood, race, monetary status, or every external features. Of course, what they are on the inside shows up on the outside. Substance abuse still affects peoples mental and corporeal health, whether it is a licensed nurse or drug dealer misusing and distributing drugs. battalion will always show you who they are, especially when put under pressure or a three party becomes involved. In 1964, a woman named Catherine Genovese was stabbed to death in New York City one night walking home from work. Thirty eight people were reported witnessing the attack. No one did anything to bar the attack. Certainly, someone witnessing an attack involving someone bum virtuallyting murdered is going to hear some distinctive screaming. many a(prenominal) people hearing the attack decided this dispute was none of their business.So what if they would have intervened in an nonessential that was none of their business, called the police anonymously and it turned out to be nothing. People did not want to risk their image of being one of these old nosey neighbors who peeks in the blind wanting to see trouble. Should I ever hear someone getting stabbed, I would risk being identified as a nosey person who got involved in something that was none of her business. I could not live with knowing I could have yetd a life, anyones life and did not act on it that instant moment. I would risk having the entire city gossip about me, calling me paranoid if it involved potentially manner of speaking(a) someones life. I bring forward of an incident when I was about 12 familys old. This took vest at the jump studio I was going to. We were talking about our costumes for an upcoming performance in a huge theatre. I was eager to go to my dance instructors car and get the costume catalogs. She parked her car on the side, towards the back. She did not want to be in the way of parents and other dancers coming into the dance studio. It was about 930 P.M. When I went out there, I saw a group of boys talking, but their tone of voice sounded very threatening and demanding to each other. I do remember seeing a very shiny knife in the dark.I wanted to see if one of my friends from dancing was out there. I walked up to the crowd, and asked them what where they doing. The boys or men outside quickly they all got into their very nice, expensive sports cars and drove away. Not a one of them seemed to have known I was there or acknowledged me. I did not understand why they reacted when I walked up to them, but all acted give care I was invisible. I thought I was going to save someone, anyone from getting hurt. I told many people, and got gravely fussed at.For the next week or so, I had lots of trouble, from teachers, other kids, even the school principle unplowed calling me in the office. The secretaries were very ugly to me. I am sure the incident at the dance studio had something to do with this. I thought to myself, I did not care if the whole school or my parents turned against me. I stopped a fight. Of course today, I understand why my parents would have been concerned. A twelve year old female going to ask a group of boys or puppyish men in their twenties or so could be very dangerous. Also, a twelve year old who never knew that people actually do get in fist fights is incapable of stopping gang violence or obvious drug deal. I did not realize a drug deal was going on, or that drugs even caused such incidences.I guess I thought this was elder brothers of the girls I was dancing with. I was following the values my parents taught me the last 12 years. But they never taught me about situations like this. I did not know people actually held knive s or guns or even got into physical violence with each other. At twelve years old, I had no concept of that, except perhaps on television. Of course this is a very unusual situation.Today, I would still risk disapproval from everyone to save someone elses life. Today, the only reason I could think of the school treating me like I did something wrong was those boys were a bunch of judges and politicians sons. Today, of course I would be smarter about it saving someones life if I thought they were in jeopardy. Knowledge and human compassion should be part of our every day lives so we plenty help others who at the same time can help us to continue to develop our great society.
Wednesday, April 10, 2019
Contemporary to favorable Work Essay winning into consideration every last(predicate) the material watchd mooting the gum benzoin family, I maintain chosen to make give of the think fry, think p arnt and think family approach in analysing the material. This method identifies what mixed bags are required to modify service planning, delivery and utilise and this provide assist to improve the salubriousbeing and life chances of families affected by parental health. This essay will examine all the material forgetd focusing particularly on Daniel and Emma Watson. However, an trial run of the Benjamins family will be performed in view of underdeveloped a modality on how to provide check to them. This essay is aimed at making preparation for judgement, taking into account individual take, culture, diversity, and l fireable resources that will enable me to provide support for every cardinal especially Daniel. Firstly, the essay will timber at the justice that gove rns sufferance processes, Daniels wishes and what needs to transpire to improve his quality of life.Secondly, I will in addition look at the Benjamin family and their proposal to adopt Daniel. In addition to this, I will examine Emma Watson and try to run a risk appear how I hobo facilitate her need to get her son back and what can be d unitary to overcome barriers she may encounter, and finally I will offer a summary of the essay. In order for me to begin to think nigh the assessment process, my main duty would be to abide by step forward what the law declares. As put in advance by Brammer (2003), Adoption Order may not be made unless the parents consents to the Adoption Order under tikeren figure 1989 S.20, or their consent should be dispensed and the baby bird has been placed for word meaning by an adoption agency with the prospective adopters in whose spare the order is proposed to be made. A parent is the mother or married puzzle or father with parental responsi bility, and not the divorced father without parental responsibility. Steps are made to contact the unmarried father of a infant and counsel him and seek his views on adoption level though he does not have to give his consent.The tribunal or adoption agency must have regard to the following matters (the list is not intended to be exhaustive nor in some(prenominal) order of priority) Children Act 1989 S. 1(4) a) The youngsters ascertainable wishes and feelings regarding the decision (considered in the light of the childs age and understanding). The instruction to this Act reinforces this aspect of the checklist stating it is essential that an adoption agency, in so far as reasonably functional , involves and consults the child at all stages of the adoption process, ascertaining and taking into account his views in a way which is reasonable to, and consistent with his age and understanding (para.13). b) The childs particular needs This factor entangles the childs physical, e motional and educational need as expressed in the checklist and is possible to extend to other needs including brotherly psychological and health. c) The likely effect on the child ( throughout his life) of having ceased to be a member of the received family and to become an adopted person, in addition to this statement The United Nation Convention on the Rights if the Child states that it is the funda intellectual right of every child to belong to a family and Article. 8 of the ECHR the right to respect family life. As with the welfare principle, the court must consider the effects on the child throughout his life.d) The childs age, sex, background and any of the Childs characteristics which the court or agency considers relevant. e) Any harm (within the gist of Children Act 1989) that the child has suffered or is at risk of suffering. This refers to any harm and not just solid harm The tellingship which the child has with relative and with any other person in relation to who m the court or agency considers the relationship to be relevant, including (i) the likelihood of any such(prenominal) relationship continuing and the time value to the child of doing so, (ii) the ability and willingness of any of the childs relatives, or of any such person to provide the child with a secure environment in which the child can develop, and otherwise to invite the childs needs, (iii) the wishes and feelings of any of the childs relatives, or of any such person regarding the child.This factor is one of the provisions in the Act that directs on the courts to consider contact. (S.1 (8) (a) allows the views of other important plenty in the childs life to be taken into account such as foster and it also includes the childs birth parents. Moreover, the delay principle is drawn from the Children Act. Section 1 (3) the court or adoption agency must at all times bear in mind that, in general, any delay in coming to the decision is likely to prejudice the childs welfare. Th e court draws up a timetable for the avoidance of delay. The Public Outline also has an push on the overall timescale for a child amid care proceedings and final office. In addition to this Section 1(5) states that in placing the child for adoption the agency must give due consideration to the childs religious persuasion, racial crease and cultural and linguistic background. The guidance in a circular Adoption Achieving the right balance prize the importance of a childs ethnic origin, culture and religion as significant factors to be accounted for noting that placement with a family of similar ethnic origin is most likely to meet the childs needs as fully as possible.Adoptions takes a while to process and this allows the Multi-disciplinary agencies time to organize the family and especially give Emma the support she requires if she is still raise in having Daniel back or not. Stu fleets indicate that when the child is placed for adoption birth parents face bereavement as the y face losing their child for satisfactory even if it is the childs best interest. On-going contact help alleviate some of their anguish and bringing them benefits such as reassurance that the child is alright, making the loss of their child easier to accept, helping them to feel more positively about the adoptive parents and seeing a positive role for themselves in their childs future. Coulshed and Orme (2006) define assessment as an on-going process in which the service user participates, the purpose of which is to understand people in relation to their environment it is the basis for planning what needs to be done to maintain, improve and bring about change.The five stages of assessment process involve Preparation, study collection, examining the data, data analysis and acting on outcomes of the data analysis. Bell et al (2007) and White (2009) state that a good assessment ensures that the child remains at the heart of the assessment, contains full, brief, significant and prec ise data, makes good use of information from a range of sources, includes a family and social history and includes a go on analysis. Here I am now examining the data. In the correspondence, it appears that the Benjamin family loss to adopt Daniel, whilst both Mr and Mrs Benjamin may be a little old to adopt Daniel they talent be an exception as Daniel is already in their care and he appears to fit in well with the family. One of the Benjamins roles in Daniels life is to help him maintain attachment with his mother. They must also help the child to develop healthy and strong new attachments with themselves and then transfer those attachments to the permanent caretakers of Daniel who may be either Emma or adoptive parents.Barbara has good support network in the family, which includes Naseem who has worked as a kindly Work assistant and has had good background of meeting the needs of ethnic minority children. Barbara is already an expert in caring for Daniel in the documentation I received it appears she responds to his demeanour and deals with his need on a daily basis. However, I have to carry out an assessment on attachment to desexualize whether it is advisable that they have such strong bonds as suggested by document A1 received 09.01.12. When assessing attachment between Daniel and the Benjamin family, I would look at Daniel and his environment. I would observe his developmental functions and take note of the behaviour he displays in the theater and how he responds to the family. As I observe, I need to look at the interactions with the adults and observe whether Daniel appears relaxed or not. Observing the Benjamin family includes how they react to the Daniels advances the interactions that they initiate with him, disciplinary techniques used in the home and the familys apprisedness of Daniel as a separate individual who has needs of his own and not relating all of his behaviour to their needs.Furthermore, I would observe whether Daniel engages in age appropriate activities and is able to express frustration or not. I would be interested in knowing whether Daniel responds appropriately to being apart from Barbra and how he responds upon her return. In addition to this, I would need to know if the environment provides adequate stimulation and safety measures appropriate to Daniels age and stage of development. If the case is that Daniel is not receiving support he will become disconcerted, insecure and without self-esteem. Fahlberg (1988), suggested that toddlers elder two should be able to use words like me and mine, point consistently to personate parts, combine two to three words, name pictures of common object and follow simple direction. However, Daniel suffers from cytomegalovirus and because of this, his developing is slow and he will need extra care and time for caregivers to meet his needs.It is important that Emma is amend on what it is and what kind of responsibilities is attached to caring for Daniel for a lifet ime. According to The National Health Service UK, cytomegalovirus also known as CMV is part of the herpes virus. CMV is part of the human being to human transmissible through close bodily contact. Coughs and sneezes are also possible routes of transmission. There is no accepted cure for CMV infection however medication can help people with weak resistant system in Daniels case, he was born with what could be medically termed as congenital CMV, children born with it show no signs or symptoms although some eventually develop hearing loss like Daniel. Some of the symptoms these children have are treatable but the children may develop hearing loss and one or more disabilities during the rail line of their lives. These symptoms may include seizures, problems with physical co-ordination, deafness cognitive difficulties and many more.Fahlberg (1988) propose that tutorshipgivers who understand developmental issues are less likely to be as up come in by normal behaviour and more likely to support the child as he struggles with the basic tasks at each stage. They are more readily able to perceive what a child needs to help him grow. Emma Watson made a phone call to Social Services recently. In the conversation, she stated that she wanted her son Daniel, back. Daniel has been in a foster placement with the Benjamin Family. The Benjamins would like to adopt him and it appears that Daniel has settled well with the family. According to Rutter, (1989) and B omit, (2000), research shows that children end up doing badly when an attachment bonds are disturbed. They suggested that children are to be moved when it is inevitable, in situations such as, when parents die or when they are being placed away from an abusive home they continue and state that it is inexcusable to move a child from a safe foster home.Bowbly (1951) advised that a child should receive the continuous care of a single most important attachment figure for approximately the branch two years of his life. He claimed that mothering is almost useless if delayed until after two and a half to three years and if the attachment figure is broken, during the critical two year period the child will suffer irreversible long term consequences of this loss of the care giver as well as rifleure to develop an attachment. For Daniel this means that if his bond with the Benjamins is disrupted, he will almost fail to thrive in his new environment as he had already formed his attachment with the family.In relation to the phone call made by Emma, I would like to explore further and find out whether Emma has any knowledge on parenting and what she thinks a family entails, I would like to know what Emma knows about Daniels deadening and needs. I would investigate on what she knows about Cytomegalovirus and if it results that she is unaware, I would help her expand her learning chassis and share library resources, encourage her to be involved with parents groups to access support and community resour ces and if she wishes, I would look at finding her additional support such as an advocate. An advocate will help to affix resilience and self-efficacy. In addition to this, I would investigate on why she has come to the decision of wanting(p) him back. I would be interested in knowing whether there is any communication between Emma and Daniels father, including people in Emmas life.I would find out whether they are aware of Daniel and that, he is of the Asian festinate and I would explore on whether the people in Emmas life would be able to jimmy Daniels uniqueness, and discretely examine on whether they are aware of his learning disability. I will also be interested in Emmas living condition, environment, financial situation and lifestyle up to date, if these are not up to standard, attempt to help her have a secure base. Turney et al., (2007), states that an assessment needs careful consideration of the inter-relationship concerning the good and the bad influences in a childs life i.e. the risk factors that are possible to impact on the childs health and emersion as well as the protective factors. two Macdonald and Williamson (2002) and Preston-Shoot (2003), suggest that the assessment Framework for Children in Need and their families demands that each child needs are assessed as well as the aptitude of the parents and the impact of family and environmental influences on each childs growth and on the parents capacity to meet the childs needs.Bell et al., (2007) and Mitchell and Sloper, (2008) advises that assessments of disabled children may involve accommodate of the recording templates to reveal their individual strength, capability and needs and to capture their involvement to the assessment process through their preferred method of communication, this implies that a person is an expert in their own experience. Holland (2010) and Thomas and Holland (2010) put forward that the knowledge of child development is important for good assessment outcomes . Selwyn et al, (2006) and Ward et al., (2010) identified problems while carrying out an assessment on attachment, they claimed that clingy behaviour was misinterpreted as evidence of strong attachment moreover some assessments were ground on observation of a few circumstances to be consistent. Jones (2009) and Reder et al., (2003) state that assessment of parents includes capacity to meet the childs needs and the importance of understanding the basic requirements of parenting and taking into consideration the parents ability to change.Moreover sodbuster et al., (2008) and Harwin et al., (2003), recommend that psychological assessments are valuable when assessing parenting capacity. It was also their suggestion that one way of testing parental capacity to change parenting behaviour and to give them managed opportunities to change. This is achieved by giving the parents clear objectives of what needs to change and informing them on how this will be assessed, monitored and the time s cale required complemental the task. Forrester and Harwin, (2008) and Harwin (2009), also propose that motivational interviewing techniques are useful in addressing readiness to change in situations of alcoholic beverage or drug misuse. This shifts the decision to change to Emma allowing her to discover her own strength and hidden motivation.According to Farmer et al., (2008) and Harwin and Forrester (2002) the role of fathers and men in the household needs to be examined and Social Workers need to ensure that information about fathers is available whenever possible, as fathers may exert a considerable influence even when they are to living with the child. In addition to this, Social Workers need to take account of the impact of factors related to family go and family history. Assessing family functioning provides a basis for a strength-based approach thats accepts that all adults and children possess the power that can be general to improve the quality of their lives. Mental Cap acity Act S. 1(3) states that, an adult does not lack capacity to make any specific decision unless all practicable steps have been taken to aid him or her to make the decision.Laird, (2010) advises that a vulnerable adult may require advocacy support or communication communicated in other form to be able to participate in decision-making. This relates to the GSCC enroll 3.1 promoting the independence of service-users and assisting them to understand and exercise their rights. Therefore, Assessment of parental capacity depends on communication. Improving the assessment requires contrastive approach when collecting information these approaches may include observation, assessing changes in parenting practises, use of validated tools and consideration of old reports regarding the child and family. Assessment involves gathering of all sort of documented information and records from a range of sources this include medical history, social and developmental history. Consent is sort and confidentiality adhered too.To conduct my assessment successfully, as well as working with Daniel, Emma Watson and the Benjamin family I will be looking at liaising with a multi-disciplinary team, which would involve Social Services, general Doctor and the one who is trained in cytomegalovirus, Occupational therapist, Speech therapist and a mental health worker. These people will assist me to add data to my assessment and contribute to making inform decisions about Daniels future needs. In summary, I would give Emma a chance to prove that she can be a good parent. I will offer her support, information and guidance to what needs to take place, and set targets. I believe that she might not realise the impact of uprooting her son until she is made fully aware of Daniels disability needs. In my assessment, I have to prioritise Daniels best interest and now, it appears this lies with the Benjamin family who give the impression that they are a dedicated family. Prior to this, Daniel has thrived in their care.References1. Brammer, A., (2010) Social Work Law, tertiary Ed, Harlow Pearson development. 2. Bell, M., Shaw. I., Sinclair. I., Sloper. P., and Rafferty, J., (2007) An Evaluation of the Practice, Process and Consequences of the ICS in Councils with Social Services Responsibilities. Report to Department for Education and Skills Welsh fabrication Government. 3. Coulshed, V Orme, J., (2006) Social Work Practice, 4th edition, Hampshire, Palgrave Macmillan 4. Department for Health (2005) The Mental Capacity Act. London HMSO 5. Farmer, E., Sturgess, W. and ONeill, T., (2008) The reunification of Looked After Children With Their Parents Patterns interventions and outcomes. Report to the Department for Children, Schools and Policy Studies, University of Bristol 6. Fahlberg, V., (1988) Fitting the pieces together. London British Agencies for Adoption and Fostering. 7. Forrester, D. and Harwin, J., (2008) maternal(p) substance misuse and child welfare outcomes for children two years after referral. British Journal of Social Work, 38 1518-1535 8. General Social Care Council (2002) Code of practice for social care workers and code of practice for employers. London General Social Care Council 9. Harwin, J., Owen, M., Locke, R. and Forrester, D., (2003) Making Care Orders Work A Study of Care Plans and their implementation. London The Stationery Office. 10. Holland, S.,(2010) Child and Family Assessment in Social Work Practice, 2nd Ed. London sage Publications. 11. http//www.legislation.gov.uk (assessed on 17.04.2012) 12. http//www.nhs.uk/Conditions/Cytomegalovirus (assessed on 02.05.2012) 13. http//www.simplypsychology.org/bowlby.html (assessed on 17.04.2012) 14. Jones, DPH., (2009) Assessment of parenting. In Jan Horwath (ed.), The Childs World The comprehensive guide to assessing children in need. London Jessica Kingsley Publishers. 2nd Edition. 15. Llaird, S.D., (2010) Practical Social Work Law Analysing Court Cases and Inquiries, Harlow Pea rson Education 16. Macdonald, G. and Williamson, E., (2002) Against the Odds An Evaluation of Child and Family Support Services. London National Childrens Bureau/ Joseph Rowntree Foundation. 17. Mitchell, W and Sloper, P., (2008) The structured Childrens System and disabled children. Child and Family Social Worker, 13 (3) 274-285 18. Preston- Shoot, M. (2003) A matter of records? Practice, 15(3) 31-50 19. Reder, P., Duncan, S. and Lucey, C., (2003) Studies in the Assessment of Parenting. London Routledge. 20. Selwyn. J., Quinton, D., Sturgess, W and Baxter, C., (2006) Costs and Outcomes of Non- infant Adoptions. London BAAF.
Monday, April 8, 2019
American hideaway sess EssayAmerican Retirement Corporation ( slue) is an operator of senior spirit comm unities. The company is a senior accompaniment and health c be work stomachr offering a broad range of cargon and services to seniors, including freelancer living, assisted living, apt nursing and therapy services. The company operates around 65 senior living communities in 14 states, with an aggregate unit capacity of near 12,900 units and resident capacity of approximately 14, viosterol.Across the United States, the company owns 19 communities, leases 41 communities, and manages five communities pursuant to management agreements. The company operates in three distinct business ingredients retirement centers, unloosen standing assisted living communities (ALCs), and management services. The company operates large continuing care and retirement communities (CCRCs) and independent living communities (retirement centers) that contribute an array of services, includ ing independent living, assisted living, Alzheimers and skilled nursing care.The companys retirement centers are the largest segment of the companys business and comprise around 27 of the 65 communities that the company operates, with unit capacity of approximately 8,100, showing approximately 63% of the total unit capacity of the companys communities. The companys free standing ALCs provide specialized assisted living care to residents in a comfortable residential atmosphere.Most of the free standing ALs provide specialized care such as Alzheimers, memory enhancement and other dementia programs. These communities are designed to provide care in a home-like setting. At each of its free standing ALCs, the company provide personalized care plans for each resident, extensive activity programs, and entryway to therapy or other services as needed. Jack C. Massey, Dr. Thomas F. Frist, Sr. , and a small group of prominent local businessmen founded American Retirement Corp. in February 19 78.Historically, the company operated large CCRCs and independent living communities that provided an array of services, including independent living, assisted living and skilled nursing care in large, often campus style settings. The company formed American Retirement Communities in February 1995, through a combination of certain entities that owned, operated, or managed various senior living communities. American Retirement became a wholly owned subsidiary of American Retirement Communities in February 1997 (Datamonitor, December 2005).ARC began to develop and acquire a number of free-standing assisted living communities in 1999, most of which began operations during 1999 and 2000. In 2001, the company purchased assisted living residences in partnership with CNL Retirement, namely the Broadway Plaza at Pecan greenness in Arlington, Texas and the Homewood Residence in Boca Raton, Florida. In Boca Raton, ARC could be availed through the Homewood Residence, a senior confederation d esigned to help those who need assistance with periodical activities such as bathing, dressing and administering needed medication. tally to the Homewood Residence Website, the service they provide is just like family, the extra assistance their clients may need with their daily activities, while helping them maintain the privacy, dignity and independence (Homewood Residence Website). Boca Raton, located in the typewriter ribbon bound County, has a healthy economy and wealthy retirees. Its primary growth is relying mainly on the tourism industry. Palm marge Countys growth, on the other hand, is concentrated in biotechnology, electronics, and computer industries.The largest employers are in the humans sector, federal and state government, public schools, and Florida Atlantic University. In Boca Raton, there is also an increased number of honest-to-goodness populace. Businesses must deal with the shifts in demands for goods and services brought on by the desires and needs of ag ed(a) consumers (Howell, 1997). The issues facing the pitching of goods and services in general are magnified in the health care arena. Efforts to reach older consumers often are hampered by failure to understand the requirements and preferences of this population.According to the Boca Raton Comprehensive Annual Report (September 2005), the Milken build Index listed the Boca Raton market as the fourth in the 2004 Best Performing Cities Index in the demesne for economic strength and job and wage growth. With a shortage of affordable housing, Boca Raton has introduced a workforce housing ordinance and is in the process of developing mixed use options as tools for providing additional housing in areas previously reserved for non residential uses.The Report also proudly states that Boca Raton is the location of several Fortune 500 companies and nearly 3,000 businesses, employing over 38,000 people because of its low taxes, strong employment base, and quality of life, Boca Ratons bus iness community is well-situated (See defer 1). Table 1. Boca Ratons Top Employers Among the three counties in Florida, Palm Beach has experienced the greatest population growth in absolute numbers and in population density. It also has the oldest population. According to the 2000 US Census, Palm Beach County has 1,131,184 residents (See Table 2).Residents of Palm Beach County also have a higher per-capita income than in the other two counties. Miami-Dade County is clearly the largest of the three, in geographic size and population. Palm Beach and Broward Counties have standardized proportions of their population that are uninsured, approximately 15 percent, and Miami Dade has the highest at 25 percent (Jackson Beatty, 2003, p. 7). In the issue of income, Boca Raton has a high income per capita. Table 3 provides the data of income distribution by age group and by ethnicity in the year 1999. Table 2. Palm Beach Demographics PALM BEACH COUNTY FL USPOPULATION soma pattern summat e Total population 1,131,184 Square miles (land) 1,974. 11 Population per square mile 573. 01 296. 37 79. 56 GENDER Number pct Pct Pct Male 546,739 48. 3 48. 8 49. 1 effeminate 584,445 51. 7 51. 2 50. 9 AGE Number Pct Pct Pct 15 or younger 201,715 17. 8 19. 0 21. 4 16-24 113,057 10. 0 12. 2 13. 9 25-44 305,041 27. 0 28. 6 30. 2 45-64 249,295 22. 0 22. 7 22. 0 65+ 262,076 23. 2 17. 6 12. 4 Number Number Number Average age (years) 42. 55 39. 53 36. 22 RACE AND ETHNICITY Number Pct Pct Pct clear 894,207 79. 1 78. 0 75. 1 Black or African American 156,055 13. 8 14. 6 12. 3 American Indian and Alaska native 2,466 0. 2 0. 3 0. 9 Asian 17,127 1. 5 1. 7 3. 6 Native Hawaiian and other peace-loving islander 692 0. 1 0. 1 0. 1 round other race 33,709 3. 0 3. 0 5. 5 Two or more races 26,928 2. 4 2. 4 2. 4 Hispanic or Latino 140,675 12. 4 16. 8 12. 5 Sources U. S. Census Bureau, 2000 Census ePodunk promissory note Hispanic ethnicity is a separate data category from race. This number should not be added to race totals. Table 3. Incomes in 1999 Boca Raton, FloridaBOCA RATON FL US MEDIAN HOUSEHOLD INCOME BY AGE ($ IN 1999) Number Number Number Median household income 60,248 38,819 41,994 homeowner under 25 24,080 22,861 22,679 Householder 25-34 49,871 39,021 41,414 Householder 35-44 73,110 46,291 50,654 Householder 45-54 82,033 50,347 56,300 Householder 55-64 71,315 42,971 47,447 Householder 65-74 52,321 32,398 31,368 Householder 75 and older 43,971 25,085 22,259 PER CAPITA INCOME BY RACE OR ETHNICITY ($) Number Number Number Per capita income 45,628 21,557 21,587 White 48,463 23,919 23,918Black or African American 16,275 12,585 14,437 Native American 31,123 16,598 12,893 Asian 22,469 20,429 21,823 Native Hawaiian and Pacific islander 13,569 15,251 15,054 Some other race 14,023 11,431 10,813 Two or more races 20,589 13,514 13,405 Hispanic or Latino 25,476 15,198 12,111 Sources U. S. Census Bureau, 2000 Census ePodunk Moreover, the Health look at District of Palm Beach C ounty provides a source of reinforcement for low-income residents to gain access to health care coverage and maintains a comprehensive trauma system in Palm Beach County, Florida.Other services include rehabilitation/long-term care, nurses in public schools, behavioural health professionals in public schools, senior services and childrens health insurance programs (HCDPBC Website). HCDs mission is to maximize the health and well being of Palm Beach County residents by addressing their health care needs and planning for the access and delivery of services. Health care has become one of the most vibrant sectors of the American economy, frequently a leader in economic growth, and the largest employer.Its investigate-based medicine focused on the use of pharmaceuticals, mechanical devices, and surgery, intervention strategies that job an earlier view of the body as a machine, paying relatively little attention to inhering processes of problem-solving that occur normally (Heirich, 1 998, p. 343). According to Andersen, Rice and Kominski (2001), improving access to health care can be greatly facilitated by a new generation of access models and indicators. These should stress the importance of contextual as well as individual characteristics to promote policies to improve access for defined populations.Also, these should focus on the point to which medical care contributes to peoples health. Access measures should be developed specifically for particular vulnerable population groups. These measures are especially important because of the cross-cutting needs of many of the vulnerable groups persons with HIV/AIDS, substance abusers, migrants, homeless people, people with disabilities, and those ache from family violence. Improving equity, effectiveness, and efficiency should be the guiding norms for re take care on access. Among the most important areas for research are Promoting successful contain outcomesresearch on the relationships among medical risk factors , the content of prenatal care and birth outcomes Reducing the incidence of vaccine-preventable childhood diseasesresearch on the relationships among race, barriers to access, and infectious disease Reducing the effects of degenerative diseases and prolonging liferesearch concerning the differences in use of high-cost discretionary care according to gender, ethnicity, income, and insurance status and whether these differences represent overuse or underuse of these services. Reducing morbidity and pain through timely and appropriate treatment research exploring methods to better define what constitutes timely and appropriate use of physician services References American Retirement Corp. (2005, November 5). Retrieved may 5, 2006, from Datamonitor Database at http//dbic. datamonitor. com/companies/company/? pid=BAC9B41D-2415-44CF-8228-1C8B736DCBA8 American Retirement Corporation Website. http//www. arclp. com/index. html Andersen, R. M. , Rice, T. H. , Kominski, G. F. (2001). Chan ging the U. S. Health Care System.San Francisco Jossey-Bass. Boca Raton Income Overview. Retrieved May 5, 2006, from Epodunk Website at http//www. epodunk. com/cgi-bin/incomeOverview. php? locIndex=8367 Comprehensive Annual Financial Report of the City of Boca Raton, Florida. (2005, Spetember 30). Retrieved May 5, 2006, from Boca Raton Government Website at http//www. ci. boca-raton. fl. us/city/Council3. cfm Heirich, M. (1998). Rethinking Health Care Innovation and Change in America. Boulder, CO Westview Press. Homewood Residence Website. http//www. seniorhousingnet.com/seniors/search/brochure/pr_brochure. jhtml? pid=552999name=hrbocaratontrigger=shnsource=a1shzr2t070 Howell, W. C. (1997). Forward, perspectives, and prospectives. In A. D. Fisk W. A. Rogers (Eds. ), Handbook of human factors and the older adult (pp. 16). San Diego, CA pedantic Press. Jackson, C. A. , Beatty, A. (2003). Organization and Financing of Indigent Hospital Care in South Florida. Santa Monica, CA Rand. P alm Beach Population Overview. Retrieved May 5, 2006, from Epodunk Website at http//www. epodunk. com/cgi-bin/popInfo. php? locIndex=8814
Sunday, April 7, 2019
encounter the primeval principles of utilitarianism EssayThe conjecture of utilitarianism determines the rightness or injureness of an modus operandiion by its consequences. This is determined by measuring the amount of pleasance or pain brought to someone caused by an feation. Utilitarianism is a teleological possible action of ethics, this means that it is concerned with the outcome and the consequences, consequence that an act is non right or wrong in itself but is right or wrong cyphering on the outcome of said action. The main founder of this theory was Jeremy Bentham (1748-1832). Bentham worked to fight many things during his time such as industrialisation, mass migration and poverty. Utilitarianism is a relativist system meaning thither argon no fixed waits, it is also concequentialist this means that morality is by the consequences that directly follow an action. Utilitarianism tends to be brought d own to one main detect and that is The greatest nice for the greatest number whilst the principle of this rule is aimed to execute the majority, it does have its flaw is the fact that the minority spring up suffer.The principle of utility, as mentioned before, is the greatest good for the greatest number this means that if certain situations occur, advocates of utility would al routes choose the option that brought slightly the or so pleasance for the nearly amount of wad, this means that they would choose the action that trifles about the better outcome, unheeding as to whether or not the action may be perceived as right or wrong by society in normal circumstances collect to the fact they are interested in rescue the most amount of fun possible.However, with this principle, comes a downside in the fact that whilst the majority may be satisfied or happy in a grouchy situation, thither will always be a minority, regardless of how small, that are unhappy. However fol declines of the principle of utility may be advance to en gage in wrong doings such as torture, whilst most would see this as an tight act, in certain circumstances, utilitarians may still take part in the act as it would bring about astronomical amounts of pleasure for a large amount of bulk, with the minority still suffering, in this case, the soulfulness who was being tortured.The fact that utility is found on bringing about blessedness this means that anyone who is an advocate of utilitarianism or follows the theory, is hedonistic, this means that they strive for pleasure and seek to avoid pain as often as possible, however what might be pleasure for some, may be pain for otherwises. one that point, some may say that pleasure is subjective, meaning that pleasures are all different for different batch, for exemplification in a situation one may choose the option that he/she conceive ofs will bring about a certain pleasure that they enjoy, however because they enjoy it, doesnt me all(prenominal)one will, so in essential fact even though they are nerve-wracking to bring about pleasure due to their own tastes, they may not be causing any pleasure at all and may even cause some small elements of pain, due to the fact that people have different ideas on what pleasure is.A ache with the point of different types of pleasure, J. S move stated that in that respect are higher and dismantle pleasures in society, whilst he was around during the 19th century, obviously peoples views on pleasure has changed, however, Mill was thought to believe that opera and poetry were among the higher pleasures in life, whereas today, they may be seen as lower pleasures.One main question may be, how does one card pleasure? and in answer to that, Bentham devised the epicurean calculus, a form of calculation, designed to work out how great the pleasure or pain is that results from a particular action. There are 7 signifi tidy sumt criteria identified by Jeremy Bentham and they are Intensity (intense pleasure is the outstrip) , Duration (pleasure is better if it lasts longer), Certainty (pleasure that is definitely going to happen), Propinquity (pleasure that is close at hand), Fecundity (pleasure that promotes hike up pleasure), Purity (pleasure not mixed with pain) and Extent (pleasure that affects people).In order for an act to bring about a high amount of pleasure, it must satisfy majority of the criteria above, whilst it may be near impossible to settle an act that satisfies all of the criteria, a pleasure will still be regarded as high or low, based on the amount of criteria met. Another key aspect of utilitarianism is that whilst there is act utilitarianism that focuses on the consequences regardless of the action taken place, there is also rule utilitarianism, created by J. S Mill.Rule utilitarianism the principle is utilise to a selection of rules which are in turn, used to determine what to do in a particular situation. With rule utilitarianism, acts are either right or wrong regardless of w hat the outcome is. Rule utilitarianism can be easily compared to and agreeing with the law, in the fact that there are certain acts that are just force field wrong due to the fact that they are un give carely to bring out pleasure for a large amount of people, such as murder or theft.With rule utilitarianism, it avoids the problem of evil pleasures found with Benthams view, such as sadism. Rule utilitarianism also tends to bring about the most amount of pleasure without excluding the minority that suffer like act utilitarianism does, as rule doesnt allow crimes against minorities that benefit the majority and allows the conception of justice. Rule utilitarianism came was devised due to the criticisms of Benthams act utilitarianism, in the case that act utilitarianism just follows the rules instead of trying to predict the outcomes.As well as the two already mentioned, there are more types of utilitarianism, such as election utilitarianism and two-rule utilitarianism. Preference utilitarianism was devised by Peter Singer (1946-present), gustatory modality utilitarianism sought a way of decision making that took in to account the interest of the minority, unlike the previous theories. Singer stated that every individuals preference must be taken in to account when deciding the best interests of the group and not only that, but every ones interests should be given equal value.Whilst the interests of the minority are more concerned with in this theory it still follows the fact that the right thing to do in a situation is what is best for the greatest number, however it has no reference to pleasure or pain. Preference utilitarianism has its own value that is followed, and that is The greatest amount of preference satisfaction, for the greatest amount of people. With this theory it has advantages due to the fact that the minority do not tend to suffer as the ideology is concerned with preference satisfaction.The other utilitarianism was two-rule utilitarianism. This theory was created by R. M Hare (1919-2002) this is a theory that satisfies both act and rule utilitarianism by bringing both of their values together. In this theory, morality, based on rules and customs is acceptable for most situations, but occasionally we will need to use utilitarian thinking where we have to consider the consequences of an action.Whilst there is many different criticisms of both act and rule utilitarianism, Hare tried to bring them together with altercations to satisfy any criticisms.Those are many of the different important concepts that involve utilitarianism There are many key aspects to utilitarianism that I havent mentioned such as negative utilitarianism, Karl Popper (1902-1994) and motive utilitarianism, Robert Merrihew Adams (1937-present) these are all based around the main principle of utilitarianism however are not as well known as the other theories.Each of the features mentioned are key when it comes to understanding utilitarianism however, o verall, I believe that the fact that everything fits in with everything else makes it a rather simple subject, on the whole, you know what the principle is and how simple it is, you know other theories that potentially quarrel said theory but most of all you are given a way to measure and calculate it all.Overall I do agree with the theory of utilitarianism as life should be about pleasure and happiness, even if it is not available to you, either find it or bring it to others by an action. As a person who is an advocate of happiness and a hater of physical pain, I believe that life should unceasingly be one big happy moment, with that in mind, I would have to agree with the theory of utilitarianism, as its main principle is shared with my positive outlook, bringing about pain for as many people as possible.To what extent are these important concepts undermined by relevant criticisms (9) It could be argued that pleasure is subjective, meaning that pleasure is different for different people and may even link in with a hearty context in the fact that, what certain people find to be pleasurable may depend on social class, environment, background, social/peer groups etc , in the fact that an upper-middle class man may think of pleasure to be poetry or theatre, whereas a lower-working class man, may view pleasure as going to watch their favourite sports team and may find poetry or theatre boring, and wrong versa.With that in mind we can refer back to J. S Mills theory of there being higher and lower pleasures, given this, it may affect the ideology of hedonism, in the fact that people all strive for happiness but with the idea to avoid pain. Another criticism is that utilitarianism as a whole can justify wrong doings in desperate times of need, such as torture, in extreme situations it may be seen as justifiable to torture someone as long as it will bring about happiness to many people, even though such an act would usually be considered as unjustifiable and uneq uivocally wrong.Some critics of utilitarianism may also argue that pleasure has a negative knock on effect in the fact that pleasure for one person may cause pain to some other, for example, if a job came down to two desperate people, whoever got it would be happy, the other sad and upset. Some say that measuring pleasure was hard and therefore the hedonic calculus was created to make it easier, however it is still hard to apply and can also be impractical for quick repartee situations, where time is of the essence and not all of the criteria can be fully applied.The idea of utilitarianism is to predict outcomes and see how much pain/pleasure a particular action would bring however, humans are not psychic and cannot accurately predict the future or the outcomes of an action. Linking to the point about one personas happiness comes another persons pain, on a larger scale, whilst applying the utilitarianism principle, people are favouring the majority at the expenditure of the minor ity, whilst, in comparison they may seem more insignificant, when taking in to account the amount of people youre helping, they are still humans that deserve happiness and avoid pain just like anyone else.Overall I do believe that there are many potential criticisms of the utilitarianism ideology however, I do not think anyone can argue against it by challenging its purpose and principle of bringing about happiness to a large amount of people, which in reality, is what most people strive for in life, as some would argue that there is no better feeling than happiness and joy.