Friday, March 1, 2019

Apply Dsm-Iv to William Styron Essay

He chronicles the bunken and poisonous mood (Styron, 1990) that occupies unspoiledly of his days. He reflects his diminished interest and recreation towards exceptionally islands pleasure, his beloved home, piece of writing and other activities that he lend oneselfd to enjoy. He wonders how his friendly place seemed so hostile and forbidding. As a source it felt helpless and painful to him when he found out the writing becomes more difficult and exhausting, finally ceased because mental picture has made him un subject to concentrate.Styrons statement of two or three hours of sleep I was able to get at night indicated that he suffered from insomnia and the everyday sleepless was a rargon torture to him. It was clear that his insomnia evolved from middle insomnia to severe insomnia just decline before his hospitalization (Andreasen & Black, 2011). Styron also stated his slowed psychomotor functions that manifested in slowed-down responses, near paralysis, psychic energy thrott led back close to zero.Styron further describes his rational disorder severity as reached the phase of the disorder where all champion of hope had vanished, along with the idea of a futurity. firearm these fact descriptions depict Styrons hopelessness and despair, he also proposed a point Why wasnt I in a hospital which implies his posterior voluntary hospitalization and improvement in his illness. In addition, Styron constantly thinks astir(predicate) death and suicide evidenced by Death, was now a nonchalant presence. His house has also become a place that was make full with possibilities of committing suicide.These core symptoms in Styrons case defined study opinion and has presented for more than two weeks (Ameri ordure Psychiatric Association, 2000). Styron stated by him egotism that there was no manic episode occurs. And there were no evidence for a flux Episode. Although it was clear that clients alcohol abuse history and his utilise of sleep medication play rol es in his depression clients depression are non due to the direct physiological personal effects of the substances or any general medical condition (American Psychiatric Association, 2000).It is enkindle to address that clients symptoms are not better accounted for by Bereavement but the unfastened heartbreak Styron had toward his mother can be consider a major cipher that contributed to his depression. The childhood trauma and the unresolved grief provide be discussed later in this essay. In Styrons case his depression began gradually during the six to eight month epoch frame. Styron is on point in his astute description of milder dysthymic states that evolve into physiologically engaged forms of sever, endogenous depressions (England, Ganzer, Foster, & Tosone, 2006).Based on clients flow rate situation it is reasonable to give Styron moderate with current GAF score of 65. Styron stayed in hospital for n primaeval seven weeks and discharged with an improvement in his illness and his functions. All of his statements of I began to get well, gradually but steadily the fantasies of self destruction disappeared suicidal notions dwindled then disappeared had first dream in galore(postnominal) months indicated that he was in the process of Partial recovery. Not only he started to feel peace in his mind but also he was able to attend hospital group activities.Styron has high adaptive level of defensive functions at current state. The understanding of the causes of depression has evolved over centuries. While Styron was detecting his forgotten or buried events that underlay his depression it will be important to look into his case done the biopsychosocial lens. From biopsychosocial model perspective the three major factors which all play a role in causing depression are biological, psychological and social factors. thither are three aspects that contribute to Styrons biological factor genetic, alcohol use and medication.Based on Styrons memory, his father, a shipyard engineer, suffered from clinical depression. When Styron was a raw boy he have witnessed his fathers depression and hospitalization. new-fangled genetic research supports earlier studies reporting family links in depression (Pittenger & Duman, 2008). If one or both of childs parents have a vulnerability to depression, then it can be transmitted to the child. Therefore Styrons fathers depression can be thoughted as a risk factor to Styrons later depression.In the narrative of Styron, he stated his dependence on alcohol and the overuse of Halcion for his quiescence problem. Excessive alcohol consumption significantly increases the risk of developing major depression (Gottlieb). Similar to alcohol, the increased risk for developing depression in benzodiazepines might be due in part to effects of drugs on neurochemistry, like decreased levels of serotonin and norepinephrine (Pittenger & Duman, 2008). Styron himself acclaims that more significant factor (Styron, 1990) to hi s depression was the death of his mother when he was thirteen.In order to view psychological factor in Styrons case Styrons early mother lost has strong affect on his depression. Attachment surmisal predicts a relationship betwixt depressive disorder and the early bond between the child and parents. Particularly the experiences of early loss, separation whitethorn all lead to insecure internal working models (Ma, 2006). To Styron, the death of his mother has created nearly irreparable emotional havoc (Styron, 1990) for him. This huge hole in his life whitethorn lead to his insecure and self-worthlessness.This insecure internal working models manifest through depressed individuals often blaming themselves for invalidating events and may not taking confidence for positive outcomes. Styron reaction towards can be interpreted as he subconsciously felt he was not worthy of the honor (Marowitz, 2009). Regarding Styrons own insight of incomplete mourning (Styron, 1990) he is right alm ost the unsolved grief can keep bring the insufferable core group of rage, guilt and sorrow. The Styrons were a dignified Southern WASP fanily and throw displays of grief were tacitly discouraged (England, Ganzer, Foster, & Tosone, 2006).Since Styron was stuck in the phase of unresolved grief and using rage, guilt, and sorrow as the fuel for his work he never really learned a correct way to release his negative repeating emotions. Social factor in Styrons case may be his social isolation during his early life from childhood to adolescent. As an only child in the family Styrons social support can only come from his depressed father and mother with terminal illness. There was no one to share the burden and loneliness with him. As a pre mature and gifted child Styron went to schools grade that did not match his developmental stage.

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