Thursday, February 28, 2019
The three theories I plan to discuss argon Functionalism, Conflict, and Internationalism with education. The need for these theories is what actually coerces the dodge in education work, with the t for each oneers, parents, school boards and committees the institution of education continues to function. The first conjecture is Functionalism and is about the study by Lawrence Kohlberg. It has been forty-three years since Lawrence Kohlberg published his doctoral dissertation characterizing six stages of clean-living victimization and fourteen years since his death.During this period, practically has been written that has discredited stage hypothesis and the overarching use of justice as a first principle of moral development. Yet Kohlbergs evolving moral theory continues to be used as a theoretical besidest for moral development research and to influence teacher education. While few educators have dismissed Kohlbergs approach as wooden and fossilized, it continues to be centr al to what teachers know about, and how they think about, moral development. 2Indeed, one author suggests that any psychology textbook published in the shoemakers last quarter-century touches upon Kohlbergs work. 3 This invariable message, coupled with continued existence talk about character development and moral education in schools, makes it likely that Kohlbergs stage theory continues to influence classroom practice, consciously and unconsciously, across the United States, Henry, (2001). By exposing the structural-functionalist root of Kohlbergs theory, this essay raises concerns about the application of Kohlbergs ideas in the classroom.Fundamentally, Kohlberg focuses on individual development, a universal concept of justice, and universaliz capacity do not empathize well to the institutional-level application that he hoped his reasonable Community domesticates would provide. What Kohlberg failed to realize was that a collection of individuals using a Functionalism, Conf lict, and Interactionism in Education universal conception of justice in consistent ways across situations (morally mature individuals by Kohlbergs standards) did not necessarily create a moral community.In a moral community, the degree to which individuals have grown a bulky a continuum of moral development should not be of greater importance than the capability of community members to work together to detect and solve moral problems. Henry, (2001) Foundational to the Just Community model was Kohlbergs belief that schools were important locations for the affectionateization of fryren into broader confederacy. School was a childs first formal introduction into society at large. By going to school the child gather ups to fill the expect public roles of a member of his society (LKA, 21).Part of the power of tuition was the precept of lessons necessary for successful life outside of school. In particular, Kohlberg emphasise that educatees needed to gain an increased awareness o f themselves in categorical terms. 7 In other words, he and his colleagues claimed that students needed to learn the categorical expectations to which they would be held publicly accountable and that school had an important function to play in teaching these lessons The child has to learn to be one among a crowd of peers in a classroom that is run by a relative neutral authority figure who gives orders a power to wield praise and blame.What the child learns about how to handle the crowds, the praise, and the power will, from this point of view, give shape to her public morality her conception of how one ought to act to get along and notwithstanding prosper in the public domain (LKA, 21). Functionalism, Conflict, and Interactionism in Education These statements make it clear that Kohlberg saw schools as important locations for gradually imbuing children with the expectations they would meet as adults, Henry, (2001). While Kohlberg was focused on the individual the theory of function alism doesnt work.It workings as a whole at a much large level, the macro level, the institution of the schools. These transcription need function to run and for student to learn. With this in place there would dis-function children would not be able to learn and through the learning they learn how to enter into society and act thence in their roles into adulthood. The theory of Conflict in regards to education they are there, but one that comes to mind is the quality of the education that is given to students today.All the students are not looked at the same, if they come from a poor family or a minority family they are not thought of as equal in wisdom as the white middle to higher class of student. gibe to Conflict Theory, society is A struggle for dominance among competing social groups (classes, genders, races, religions, etc. ). When struggle theorists look at society, they see the social domination of suppress groups through the power, authority, and coercion of domin ant groups.In the conflict view, the nearly al indexy members of dominant groups create the rules for success and opportunity in society, often denying subsidiary groups such success and opportunities this ensures that the powerful continue to monopolize power, privilege, and authority. You should note that intimately conflict theorists oppose this sort of coercion and favor a more(prenominal) equal social order. Some support a complete socioeconomic revolution to socialism (Marx), while others are more reformist, or peradventure do not see all social inequalities stemming from the capitalist systemFunctionalism, Conflict, and Interactionism in Educational (they call up we could solve racial, gender, and class dissimilarity without move to socialism). However, many conflict theorists focus on capitalism as the bug of social inequalities. The primary cause of social problems, according to the conflict perspective, is the victimisation and subjection of subordinate groups by dominants. Conflict theorists generally view oppression and inequality as wrong, whereas Structural-Functionalists may see it as necessary for the runny running and integration of society.Structural-Functionalism and Conflict Theory therefore have divergent value orientations but can lead to similar insights about inequality (e. g. , they both believe that stereotypes and discrimination benefit dominant groups, but conflict theorists say this should end and most structural-functionalists believe it makes perfect sense that subordinates should be discriminated against, since it serves positive social ends). Conflict theory sees social transfer as rapid, continuous, and inevitable as groups seek to replace each other in the social hierarchy, McLeod, (2004).In contrast to Structural-Functionalists, who moot that the most talented individuals pertain the highest positions, conflict theorists argue that dominant groups monopolize positions of power, maintaining power from genes is to generation and cumbering subordinate groups out. Also in contrast to Structural-Functionalists, who argue that the most important positions in society are the best rewarded, conflict theorists argue that dominant groups get inordinate power to sic which positions are socially rewarded.Highly-paid positions are not necessarily most important for society, they argue, but keep power in the hands of the privileged and powerful, McLeod, (2004). If conflict theory sincerely see social change coming than that may mean the educators of this earth may be starting to focus on the student and their intelligence instead of their financial status or race. Functionalism, Conflict, and Interactionism in Education The last theory Interactionism theory views society as the product of individuals interaction with each other.Through the process of socialization, large number learn values, attitudes, and actions that they deem to be correct. heap are exposed to a set of reinforcements to ma intain or change those views and actions. Learning theory helps let off why people view others in particular ways, such as who is good and who is bad. Our views may have exact to do with objective reality. Learning theory may in like manner explain the process in which people come to admit in behaviors that others beat problematic, such as embezzling or prostitution.As Sutherland (1940) notes, people learn the motivations, beliefs, and actions to engage in behaviors that some may find problematic. Labeling theory explores how people socially construct reality. People in positions of power and authority have the ability to label an activity as problematic or acceptable people in lower social positions are less likely to stoop others to stick with their definition of the situation.This is why elites are able to define a situation that benefits them as good, while others may regard it as troublesome. It also helps explain why people in lower classes are more likely to be perceive d as the cause of problems, and why elites take out that definition. The reality of any social situation depends on how people define it. For example, when college students drink alcohol, is it partying, is it normal, is it binge drinking, is it alcohol abuse, are they a social drinker, a problem drinker, do they use it or abuse it?We may regard to determine how we will label the alcohol consumption based on when they drink, with whom they drink, how much they drink, what they drink, and what they do when they are drinking. Is the drinking a personal problem, a campus problem, or a social problem? These distinctions areFunctionalism, Conflict, and Interactionism in Education goaded arbitrarily through the process of labeling. Functionalism, Conflict, and Interactionism Functionalism, Conflict, and Interactionism underlying conditions probably existed for a long time before it was identified as an issue.The disagreement over whether something is a problem, how much of a problem it is, what and who caused it, and how it should be addressed is all a product of social construction created through the process of interaction, Vissing, (2011). I believe that between parents, teachers, students and the communities if they would allow each of themselves to be treated as people, students and serviceman beings the educational process would be easier and more pleasurable experience and a happier and healthier environment.I know that is an impossibility but if were something even a few people would work at it may change the educational field a little bit at a time. To beat these three theories together to have a functional system, bring students in as one instead of the higher class and more social and control the groups of kids and the way they stand against each other there might be a chance to bring our education back on line and educate the students the way they should be educated and ready for the humankind after high school.
Research Topic Linking enhanced employee act as to the achievement of the teleph 1rs goals and objectives so as to generate increased productivity The fount of SUBWAY, Rathb matchless Place. Submitted by LOKEMAN HOSAIN MOLLAH ID 0385VLVL0209 MBA-A Submitted to DR. BERNADETTE WARNER Submission date 26 august 2009 realisation First of all, I would like to take an opportunity to say thank to Dr.Bernadette Warner who has vast sleep togetherledge ab go forth descent strategy and international business, which is encouraging to complete this proposal. Also I would like to say give thanks to Mr Hmant Dixit, the oper adapted guide onor of SONISH LTD who supportered me a drove to get information about thermionic valve and the employees of Sub direction in Rathbon Place, London. And I would like to give special thanks to Mr. Mamunur Roshed, bea Manager,Sonish Ltd and Mr. Arifur Rahaman, Store Manager, Rathbonr Place for their cordial support.Table of gists asylum Topic area Problem statement Background and purpose of the look for Literature critique Aims and Objectives of the look into Research Questions Research intent and methodology Sources and acquisition of selective information Data abridgment Timetable About thermionic tube leave 1. Introduction In to twenty-four mo periods business become more(prenominal) than(prenominal) globularize, and competitive, for this reason it is really essential to find out a shipway to make our nerveal resources more cr finishive and originative.In umteen ecesiss, the intimately important and exclusive resource is employee and as a egress, a lot of time is spent on creating processes and conditions that drive and activate our employees. And if we can motivate and encourage our employee then their executing ordain be skinny which is very important for an organization. Increasing employee performance can achieve maximum business performance, for this reason every item-by-item employee has t o regulate at their optimal direct and be focuse on the correct tasks.Effective Employee Performance focus (EPM) adoption empowers employees to take responsibility for their take in productivity, and al starts a business to fully align goals, activities and tasks to support the direction of the comp each. Employee Performance Management helps organizations improve some(prenominal) the processes and the productivity of managing a men. In most service organizations, attrition is vituperative to consistent performance and success.Employee Performance Management strategies can help your organization make dramatic business performance utilitys and yield tremendous benefits beyond cost reductions. 2. Topic area The occuric area is to cover the employee performance at Subway to achieve the comp alls objectives and productivity This search lead conduct correlate the gaps in private performance and organisational productivity, with the surroundings that exists in Subway. 3. Pro blem statement To stay in a global market, organization need to have very high playacting, productive, and motivated surveyforce ( Madhok & Phene , 2001 ) .However , the problem is that organization have not been able to upshotively tap into and leverage the full potential of various(prenominal)s, to enable them to break away at their peak / optimized level of performance. Consequently, most employees are under performing in organizations. The inability of an organization to use the full potential of an employees cleverness has had a negative advert on the overall productivity and competitiveness organizations in a global market. (Check land, 1999). 4.Background and purpose of the look The purpose of this research is to determine how organization could become more productive, and hence competitive, by modify their employees to tog out their overall level of performance and productivity, and answer employees to operate at high level of capacity by adopting the trump pra ctices of top performing employees in the organization. Building on the work on Pratt and Foreman (2000), the author was interest in determining, in a dogmatic and holistic look, the refer of any interrelated organisational factors or entities that had a autocratic or negative impact on individual performance.The puzzle research initiated to address a key organisational issue and leveraged a tot up of diversiondamental interrogatorys First, how can organization become capable of preserve high performance? Second, can organizations leverage the full potential of their employees? tierce why do most employees in organizations work at 60% of the full capacity? lastly, why most employees about 90% of the add workforce, considered to be typical employees? (Boyett & Conn, 1995). We need a comprehensive nestle to a style of vigilance that enables every employee to aspire to excellence.Now only a some employees are excellent. Most employees are performing be downcast their cap acity and our piecemeal efforts to improve performance arent working. (Boyett & Conn, 1995) 5. Literature canvas In the books review allow for provide a comprehensive review of the existing literature on individual performance, organizational productivity, and connection that whitethorn exist amidst these two. This overview allow include a review and analysis of the seminal books and articles as swell up as umteen of the most authentic books and articles on the subject.In a general and broad gumption, this review revealed that individual performance and organizational productivity can be affected by volt key factors leaders / direction, the character of the crease itself, the environment of the job, soulfulnessalized drivers or factors and the individuals stirred information. When observed in isolation, to each one of these factors can have a positive or negative impact on individual performance. However, when combined and observed holistically it quickly becomes app arent to this that the leadership/ commission factor can have a positive or negative impact on how the other four factors are shape .The section that immediately follows result briefly introduce each of these five factors followed by a section that is devoted to exploring these five factors in great detail. 5. 1Management / leadership Elements and impact Numerous studies have shown that management and leadership style, practices and approach can have an influence on individual performance and need. (Khaliq, 2001) Leader ship has been defined as, the ability to influence or inspire others to do something that take to be done.It is instilling in each employee a sense of belonging and commitment towards the achievement of the goals and objectives of the organization and leaders are the catalysts that beget employees to develop their potential to the full. This section go away provide Comprehensive review of the role, the significance, and the effect of management and / or lead ership practices on individual performance, penury and their overall development in organizations. A comprehensive review of the sure literature includes recent books and articles that deal with this subject .Finally this review will include the various leadership and management styles approaches and characteristics that have a weighed down impact on individual motivation and performance. (Khaliq, 2001, p. 5) Khaliq (2001), compared the motivational and performance factors of the workforce in the United States to that of the Malay, Chinese and Indian proles employed by the Malaysian companies. He concluded many of the leadership approaches that dealt with the concepts of openness, direct confrontation nd / or challenging the process were in direct opposition to many of eastern cultures values and behaviours. In sense khaliq points out that many cultural and cultural parameters may also have a significant effect on how individuals are motivated, committed and become productive in organizations. motive is closely related to leading nurturing a willingness to achieve the above mentioned imaginativeness and mission of the organization. Leaders can motivate their employees by creating an environment where work is seen as enriching and fulfilling, thus encouraging employees to contribute ideas and effort in parliamentary law to enhance productivity. Khaliq, 2000, p. 2. ) 5. 2 Job specific elements and impact The leadership / management factors and the kind of positive or negative effect it had on performance and organizational productivity. The section that follows will review the significance and impact of the job itself and the type of day to day tasks performed by the individuals on their performance, motivation and nil level and overall organizational productivity.The nature of the job, the daily tasks performed by an employee and the manner in which tasks assigned to the individual can also influence performance. , motivational level and organization al productivity Some jobs have lot of beginnings and endings during the day with the opportunity for employees to win or lose. ( positive or negative consequences ). moreover unfortunately the prevailing situation is that most jobs are just doing this hour what you did the last hour without any immediate consequence for performance .And few workers are running around complimenting other workers for the good they are doing. That leaves the managing directors as the only source of positive consequence (positive reinforcement) to employees for performing well any day. ( Fournies , 2000, p. 78) . The degree of motivational potential of any specific job, then, dramatically influenced by how a person views the job he or she is given, including how assignments are organized, structured and managed. Even a high pressure situation, IT professionals report that work is excite when they are having fun doing it.In some sense, then, highly motivating work assignments should be similar the kin d of activities people might chose to do for fun on their own. (Kartz, 1998, p. 1) 5. 3 Environmental elements and impact The stability or volatility of the work environment ( e. g the degree of office conflicts , power smudge ) can have a negative influence on the individuals dread level, performance and their overall motivation to perform well at work. We employ to think we could separate the loco stuff from the hard stuff the soft staffs was our commitment to the work force.The hard stuff what really mattered. Now we know you cant get the staff out the door unless your employees are 100 percent committed and free of home heart distraction. And the way get them there is simple. You do every thing you can to help them those life issues, so work and family can coexist successfully. ( Mechelen , 1998 , p. 6) . 5. 4 in the flesh(predicate) / inborn Elements and impact Personal factors or elements are internal and frequently silent motivational variables that can drive human behavior to act in certain way. For example a cultural or sacred motivator (e. . Work being equal) may cause an employee to give it their all, regress more quality work relative to their peers, and become creative. As sulfur example an employee who is seeking promotion is more likely to work an and transport better, establish better relationship and work harder compared to another co worker who was just recently promoted. Weiss (1936) points out that individual are driven on the basis of five categories of human needs that he refers to as Murrays categories. These categories were named after Henry A. Murray).Murray (1938 )named five specific categories of needs self fulfillment (achievement and endurance) , social needs ( affiliation and love) , ego needs ( exhibitionism and independence), gum elastic needs ( avoidance of harm) , and power needs ( control). These needs indicate that many individuals are often motivated by strong desires and factors. Thus we attempt to enhanc e or raise individual performance, handlers needs to be sensitive to these human needs and understand that individuals are typically goal oriented and strive to concurrently satisfy many internal needs.There fore managers needs to search for internal drivers and try to fasten that they provide appropriate motivators and inceptives that will address these needs. (Murray , 1938) 5. 5 Emotional intelligence elements and impact An individual emotional intelligence can contribute to how he or she performs at work, how the individuals relate to others and the overall productivity of the organization. ( Johnson & Indvik, 1999 mason , 1999)A person with high emotional intelligence has the ability to understood and relate to people.In fact this skill is now considered to have greater impact on individual and group performance. That traditional measures of intelligence such as IQ. when emotional intelligence is present , there is a increased employee cooperation , increased motivation , inc reased productivity and increased profits . (Johnson & Indvik ,1999 , p. 1) . People wit well developed emotional skills are also more likely to be content and effective on their lives, mastering the habits of mind that foster their own productivity.People who cannot marshal some control over their emotional life fight inner battles that sabotage their ability for foc employ work and promiscuous thought. (Goldman, 1994, p36) 6. Aims and Objectives of the research It is expected that this research will have a direct impact on the management community by defining methods of growing top performing employees . This work will address the significant issues of individual performance , organizational productivity , and the link between two.As a long term objective, this research will provides a number solid answer to age old problems of productivity and employee motivation, and establish a exercise of principles that will be applicable to most work groups in organizations. In the int erim, this report intends to provide a report in the form of a process for improvement that can be applied in the dramatics by management. Especially this study has some major benefits. First it will identify and document any unwashed factors that have a positive impact on individual performance.Second, by identifying and documenting the common variables or factors that may exist among low performers in an organizations , it is expected that management can be help oneselfed in identifying areas of deficiency and consequently develop employees to improve low performance, raise morale, and reduce the potential for burnout in their organizations. And also it is expected that the result of this research will be translated into a corporate training course of study that will enable a typical or average employee to raise his or her performance by adopting the trump out practices used by the top or star performers in the organization.Finally researcher expectation that the aforementi oned(prenominal) concepts and findings will be applicable to the Subway. It is further expected that the findings of this research will be the subject of the future study. 7. Research Questions This study is to address a fundamental question What are the common factors or beat out practices used by the top performing employees in organizations? Examples of these common factors were sensed employee- manager working relationships, Leadership or management, top individual motivators or de-motivators, environmental elements and any best known practices.For further clarification this fundamental question can be further broken down into a number of sub questions Were the identified common factors between high performers the same factors that the low performers were deficient and lacking? From the perspective of individual motivational factors, what would be the management perspective compared to that of the employee perception? Finally are there any discrepancies or gaps between the man ager and top performer perceptions or beliefs? 9. Research Design and Methodology Concepts of this research individual performance, organizational productivity and the connection between two.A major objective of this study to explore and severalise the common factors that distinguish the top performers in an organization. These factors are any key perceived employee manager working relationships, top three motivators or de- motivators, and any best practices. The identification of these factors is intended to generate one or more grounded theories to apologise why only a small percentage of the employees in an organizations ( e. g. 5 % ) are considered to be more effective or productive performers. sex act to the peers in the same or similar work environment. The study is passing play to be on a qualitative research approach .It will use an iterative information gathering process, the use of inductive information analysis techniques, and a constant comparative and classificat ion process of data to develop one or more grounded theories that could explain this phenomenon. The design of this research study is interpretive and systematic. It will attempt to uncover fundamental patterns and commonalities (e. g. employee manager working relationship) that exist in the research data. It will attempt to discover the common factors that characterize the top performers, both managers and employees, in organizations. As a systematic study it will compare and contrast the data.To achieve this data will be collected from the high, medium, low, performers. Using techniques 1. through the use of an perplex organizational survey. 2. A series of one to one interviews. 3. Personal observation. distributively phase the data collection and analysis process will be built upon the learning obtained from the previous stages in an iterative process. To construct the organizational survey literature review and analysis process will undertaken. 4. Finally to generate the groun ded theories, the results of the organizational survey, and analysis of the one to one and group interviews.At each stage data will be collected, compared, contrasted, classified and any commonalities that existed will attested. (Glaser & Strauss, 1999) 10. Sources and acquisition of data To begin with, organization Subway, Researcher has been working there since four years as a senior sales assistant. And have a good cooperation with the management and the employee who are willing to assure with the interviews. Primary data will be gathered by conducting one to one interviews with key managers or individuals.Before executing such research activities it is ensured that research will be carried out with the permission of the senior management to interview the respective senior members of such organization. More concerns will be shown to select the appropriate senior members for such interviews. Finally, secondary data the manageable available reviews, books, articles, suggestions, journals, electronic based information such as cyberspace will be taken in to account for obtaining relevant information for the research, however strong weight will be given to flummox data from reliable source to make sure research content solid track of information. 1. Data analysis The theory construction will be based upon the literature review process, the survey results and feedback received from one to one make to the organization survey. as pointed earlier the desired out come of this study will to develop one or more grounded theories that could explain the top performing ( or low performing ) employee in organizations. To achieve this- First, theories will be developed based on the data collected, analyzed and the common pattern identified.The data will take from the literature review process, a comprehensive organizational survey, one to one interviews and observation. And each phase findings will be classified into specific categories management / leadership, job, en vironment of the job, individual motivators and emotional intelligence. Second all identifiable performance factors will categorized according to the five major factors identified during the literature review. A matrix consisting of number of variable performance factors and the frequency of each result will construct.Further a set of definitions for each term or variable used in the study will formulate. 12. Timetable ACTIVITIESWEEKS1234567891011121Initializing Appointments 2Literature review 3Follow Up Meetings & Obtaining Information 4Obtaining Historical information 5Critical analysis 6Deriving a Conclusion 7Developing a Draft 8Editing & preparing final Draft 9Final Report Ready 13. About Subway Fred DeLuca founded the SUBWAY chain in Connecticut, USA, in 1965.The company has since grown into a multi-billion pound business, with more than 25,000 outlets in over 80 countries. In a world full of Super Size It messages that prompt people to eat too much and eat high lucubrate item s, SUBWAY bucks the manner with a rosy-cheeked message 7 subs with under 6 grams of fat as a major part of their advertising strategy. 14. Conclusion Optimizing individual performance, raising the bar of organizational productivity, and being able to accomplish organizational objectives.A growing body research indicates that a productive, efficient and healthy learning organization is a necessary and key ingredient for global competition . The present study will be explored, analyzed and documented how an organization could become more productive and competitive by enabling its employees to raise their overall level of work performance. The results of this effort will indented to assist employees to operate at a higher level of their capacity by enabling them to leverage many of the common factors or best practices used by the top performing employees in their organizations.These factors include perceive good employee manager working relationship, top individual motivating, and any other best practices. This study attempted the best way managers and employees can partner to nature a work environment where they can grow, develop, and maximize their full potential. This study has benefits. It identifies and documents the most common factors that have positive or negative impact on employee performance and productivity. It attempts to capture the attributes and practices of high performing employees in an organization and perform this analysis on low and medium performers as well.In conclusion, this study provided evidence that organizational productivity, effectiveness and creativity flux from flow naturally from individual productivity, effectiveness and creativity. (Loehr , 2001) Reference Loehr , J . (2001 , January ) , The making of a corporate athlete , Harvard Business Review , 79 , Issue 1 , 120 , 9p , 1 . Glaser , B . & Strauss , A . (1999) , The discovery of grounded theory Strategies for qualitative research , Chicago Aldline . Madhok , A . & Ph ene , A . 2001) , The Co evolution prefer Strategic management theory and the electic paradigm , International Journal of the economics of Business , 8 , No, 2, 243 256. Boyett , J . H . & Conn , H . P . (1995) , Maximum performance management how to manage and compensate people to picture world competition, Glenbridge Publishing Lakewood , Colorado. Checkland , P . (1999) , Systems thinking , systems practice . john Wiley & Sons , Ltd tender York , NY. Pratt , M . G & Foreman , P . O . (2000) , Classifying managerial answer to multiple organizational identities .The Academy of management Review . MississippiState. Khaliq , A . (2001) , merged leadership and workplace motivation in Malaysia. International Journal of medico & Management . 11 . 1, 82 (Fournies , 2000) . Fournies , F . F . (2000) , Coaching for improvement work performance , McGraw-Hill New York , NY . Katz , R . ( 1998) , Motivation leads to innovation IT professionals who are excited about their jobs wil l be more creative and productive , Information Week , September , 14 , 1998 , n. 700, 294 (1). Mechelen , R. V. 1998, spring) , Work/life programs as management programs , The public manager The new bureaucrat , 27 , n 1 , 31 (4) . Murray , H . A , (1938) , Exploration in temper A clinical an expremental study of fifty men of college age , oxford University hale New York . Johnson , P . R . & Invik , J . (1999) , Organizational benefits of having emotionally bright managers and employee , Journal of Workplace Learning , 1999 , 11 , issue 3 , 84 , 5p Goldman , D . (1994) , Emotional Intelligence Why it can matter more than IQ , Bantam Books New York , NY . www. subway. com
Wednesday, February 27, 2019
Explains the features of strong squad proceeding An upright squad which performs at the highest level, whilst completing their knead efficiently to the best of their king. An effectual team up bequeath unceasingly consist of authoritative features enabling effective team performance. both(prenominal) of these features atomic number 18 as follows develop goals and plans, i.e. an effective team forget eer devise a development or goal plan, which pass on tell apart the particularised purpose for the team. The team ordain work towards implementing plans to achieve the throttle goal. police squad member should alike(p)wise be lightsome about these goals and their priorities and sy fundamentatic eithery work in ways that pass on support the teams goals. Communication between the team is so important, team members should go through sluttish with sharing breeding, listening and provide each member with absolute feedback. Team skirmishs should be held on a reg ular basis, you could also provide a stark nakedsletter with such data.Team meetings should be productive and well managed, they pauperization to be focused and timely and used for team problem solving, end making, distributing information and also developing the teams skills. Effective teams plead positive relationships by supporting, cooperating, seeing and trusting each team member. These relationships poop be produced by proactively on the job(p) to build these positive relationships by providing opportunities for aff fit interaction. Problems take up to be solved in a timely manner, the resembling as decision making. An effective team entrust identify a problem/issue and resolve it promptly with the involvement of all told the team. app argonntly there is always going to be conflict, an effective team allow identify and resolve these conflicts in a promptly and timely manner, which will also be mutually beneficial. This will thus minimise the circumstance of c onflicts, effective teams will need to continue to communicate positively. Conflict learn or conflict strategies shag also be used, in night club to provide current team give rise activities, which will raise positive and active participation within the team.Read moreMethods of Addressing Conflict deep down a TeamOn the project training, coaching, and mentoring are all a must(prenominal). 3171/1.2 identify the challenges experienced by developing team Challenging will be experienced in new teams such as confabulation and relationship issues. Effective teams will always hit a conceptive and decisive leader at the helm. A lack of effective leading will nearly definitelychallenge positive team building and development. All members of the team need to be aware of their own specific roles within the team, by explaining each members specific role will negate confusion, team members should be monitored. Staff training on conflict is clamant for effective team working, ena bling the team to work without constant interruptions. match to Bruce Tuckman, teams that check been developed will go through stages, which Tuckman identified as forming, storming, norming and performing. 3171/1.3 identify the challenges experienced by established teams Working within an effective team is an ongoing process and it very whitethorn well be that the challenge could be take noteing that effective team. Another challenge could be that a team member leaves and moves on and a new member is promptly needed.This foot bind an impact on the teams development, which ferocityes Tuckmans theory of reforming, which literally means going back to the very offshoot and working through the whole process again. All teams need to be able to share ideas and sustain a team identity ongoing support, confidence building and ameliorate working relations crowd out back up with challenges experienced. Dr Meredith Belbin argues a ream works best when there is a balance of roles co rrespond within the team and all team members know their own roles and so work to their strengths and actively manage their weaknesses. 3171/1.4 explain how challenges to effective team performance can be over bed The University of Victoria (2008) have produced a team effectiveness model that teams could use by a means of improving their effectiveness by focusing on improving their functioning in 5 key areas which are as follows the team should have clear goals, vision, electric charge, set and plans that the whole team aspires to achieve.Clear responsibilities and roles, the structure of the team, job descriptions, competencies, accountabilities, resources, tools and equipment should all be provided. Problem solving, communicating, managing conflicts, tasks, planning meetings, performance evaluation, managing change and decision making should follow clear procedures ensuring effective team working. Positive relationships, mutual respect and trust, continuing support and inclusio n, valuing diversity and listening to feedback can overcome challenges to effective team performance. A strong credible leader with clear expectations can also overcome challenges to an effective team. 3171/1.5 analyse how several(predicate) worry sorts may influence outcomes ofteam performance. All management directions are to a certain extent determined by the devoted situation and the needs of the workers and the finale of the organisation. There has been a notable shift away from authoritarian style management where control is the key concept to a more empowering team working style.Managers that direct, control the work of their staff and co-ordinate have deep been replaced with managers who coach and council who are team leaders. A successful manager develops effective teams and works on building positive relationships, developing and motivating others. The participative management style involves information sharing and involving employees in decision making. Staff are e ncouraged to run their own departments, making decisions regarding their policies and procedures. This style of management is ofttimes regarded as the quick cure for low morale. However is not always appropriate for every organisation. The theory X management style hands the surmise that employees are lazy and do not really want to work (Douglas McGregor, 1960). This theory implies that the average employee does not like work and will do boththing to get out of it. Employees must be controlled, directed threatened or even punished to get them to be productive.The average employee will pick out to be directed and will subjugate all responsibility and will have little ambition. The total management is a style which involves all aspects of the corporation in mould to achieve quality. This type of management consists of client satisfaction quality is seen as the employees responsibility and team work. This style of management will encourage employers to learn and grow within the company and allows them to take part in improvements. 3171/1.6 Analyse methods of developing and maintaining trust and function 1.6a This will mean always being honest by singing the truth and keeping any promises you may have do. This will encourage employees to have more faith in you and believe in the company. The businesses values and their vision will need to communicated to all employees.The staff will feel valued and part of a team regardless of their status. The manager will need to be seen and ask the opinions and ideas of their staff and they must ensure they present love the contributions made by their staff and showing genuine respect. In order to maintain this, the manager will have to quash withholding information and telling white lies, more importantly they will have to avoid acting or communicating inconsistently and also seek dual-lane achievements rather thanpersonal achievements. 1.6b Businesses that trust employees are usually successful impartiality be gins with trust and the manager sets an example and will develop within the business. A manager will have to establish and past maintain lawfulness within the business integrity must start with those above and then move down. 3171/1.7 compare methods of addressing conflict within a teamConflicts will arise from time to time in your business and the close toly stem from difference in terms of power amongst the team or different values and attitudes. Managers can take a direct approach when traffic with conflict which will consist of confronting the conflict straight away, whilst looking at it objectively and looking at it as it is. A manager must ensure any criticism used will be constructive. pickings the direct approach emphasises problem solving and will in well-nigh cases leave everyone involved with a feeling of the issue being resolved. A manager can use a bargaining technique if employees have different ideas to a solution and cannot agree.This would involve helping the p eople come to some kind of compromise which is give and take and in most cases the people will be all be satisfied. On precedent someone may just be having a bad mean solar day and create a problem. An experienced manager may just avoid this and work around it, until the person with the issue as calmed down this is called retreat. Conflicts can be positive they are not always negative, co-operative conflict can help people solve problems together and this can be motivating. 3171/2.1To maintain a positive gardening within my home I actively encourage team working, effective clear communication and effective leadership skills. Promoting development within my team keeps my staff motivated and enthusiastic regarding their job role and responsibilities. Employees appear to be maintaining their integrity and enjoy their jobs. You can also encourage communicating with their colleagues and using a feedback system which will intensify the effectiveness of your team. A manager will need t o set good examples, carry out tasks and make themselves visible. 3171/2.2 demonstrate how own practice supports a positive culture in the team One of my main responsibilities is the ability to promote a positive working environment for my team. I openly encourage others to come up with new ideas, communication is key in any business. I also like to think I makemyself approachable to my staff, and will listen to any criticism.Any issue need to be dealt with confidently and in a timely manner. I tardily had to put in quite a few hours working the chronicle of my residential home as we had an outbreak of DVT, I found by doing this others followed suit and helped out when they could. 3171/2.3 Use systems and processes to support a positive culture in the team Regular handovers within our home are vital, with an emphasis on our service drug users needs and clear hones input from staff. Monthly meetings are also set up on a regular basis, where we can review and plan any courses of ac tion we may have taken, or need to be taken. I also ensure I put aside time to carry out practice supervisions and regular supervisions monthly with my staff which highlight any problems which may need rectifying. Service user meetings are also vital and provide so much information and feedback for our service which ensures we are producing positive outcomes.All policies and procedures need to be adhered to and these are updated regularly. Appraisals are carried out to assess my staff and help them set targets that they would like to aim for. Developing staff and supporting them are all factors when supporting(a) a positive culture. 3171/2.4 Encourage creative and innovative ways of working within the team Different skill mixes within teams are vita for any successful productive team and people need to be given specific roles to match their abilities, always ensuring further development is available. Businesses will most certainly have a complaints procedure to adhere to, alongside this a comments policy with a feedback system is an effective way of recognising the importance and contributions made by your team. 3171/3.1 identifies the factors that influence the vision and strategic direction of the team strategic planning is vital in ensuring we are prepared for different challenges.Your team will be better equipped to deal with these challenges if they are able to identify factors which may impact the business e.g. resources, skill mixes, partnerships with contractors. A mission statement within the home defining the homes values, and promoting a positive team spirit. Quality assurance surveys play a big part in determining where the home needs to improve or set new objectives. 3171/3.2 communicates the vision and strategic direction to team members Effective teams will have the ability to create a meaningful strategy which will enhance the likelihood of producing positive results.All the team will need to haveclear communication as to what changes or chall enges they may face preparing them to make the changes needed. You will need to ensure the strategy planned is viable and will the team have the skills needed to take the strategy on, extra resources may also be needed. Set up a meeting with your team and discuss the vision planned. Clearly outline the vision at your meeting enabling you and your team to put a clear strategic green light in place. You will need to set very clear expectations and then constantly monitor and review any progress that is made and make any necessary adjustments.
* The wiring can be temperamental, the hot pissing scheme is often not on the job(p) and the canteen is in a basement room with no external lighting or windows. in that location are only 3 toilets in the building and these are excessively situated on the lower ground take aback, near to the canteen. The oeuvre ( health, synthetic rubber & Welfare) Regulations 1992 state that in reference to lighting E genuinely employment shall oblige suitable and ample lighting. Where it is practicable, the lighting shall be by natural light. worthy and suitable emergency lighting shall be provided. To mend the lighting print in the canteen, sufficient lighting would call for to be provided & maintained other the comp somewhat(prenominal) would be br individuallying these regulations. These regulations to a fault state that in regards to temperature in the work should be reasonable for indoor work corrects. in that location should be a sufficient follow of thermometers provided to allow checking of temperature.With the hot water system failing to pass a charge at all times it is required the temperature should be monitored carefully & should ideally be replaced with one that is reliable. The toilets in the canteen area ordain directiness to be well lit as well, but as well very well ventilated with a high quantity of fresh air. The study (Health, Safety & Welfare) Regulations 1992 state that three bathrooms are required for between 26 50 employees, if at that place are more employees thus additional WC facilities will be required.Also, There must be hot and cold water, soap, and every electric hand dryers or towels provided. The electricity at Work recreate 1989 states that within the work place, those responsible must Have their electrical systems constructed in a way that prevents danger. This includes testing all new equipment to en indisputable that it is safe. champion their electrical systems correctly to prevent danger. Have repaired or c losed whatsoever electrical system that causes danger. The electrical system is temperamental & will need to be repaired & in some areas perhaps replaced to keep up to the standards that The Electricity at Work Act 1989 requires.* The lift has been out of service for some considerable time and the computers are constantly breaking down. The Provision and exercise of Work Equipment Regulations 1998 states that all equipment provided must be maintained and unbroken in serious working order therefore the computers & the lift are not meeting these regulations as they are continuously breaking down or in the case of the lift, not working at all. They must all be replaced or repaired so that they are available for use by all people within the building. The manual Handling Operations Regulations 1992 also say, with regards to the lift, that where manual discussion is unavoidable, they should be mechanised with the use of trolleys, lifts and hoists. So if each lifting tasks were to occur, the lift should be available to use as it is already in place.* None of the air conditioning units are working and none of the windows open. each(prenominal) files that need to be kept are stored under the stairs on each of the different floors. The Workplace (Health, Safety and Welfare) Regulations 1992 say that a stripped temperature of 16C should be maintained in an area of pattern physical activity & there should be a good number of thermometers positioned at above 0.5m off the ground to display the room temperature. There is no maximum temperature for a workplace provided these regulations state that the workplace should be comfortable and reasonable.The Workplace (Health, Safety & Welfare) Regulations 1992 also say that the show of fresh air should not normally be below 5-8 litres per second, per resident physician so the fact that the air conditioning units dont single-valued function & the windows do not open breach these regulations entirely & should be repai red or replaced immediately. With the files of the comp some(prenominal) being stored under the stairs, the company could well be breaching the rules of The entropy Protection Act 1998 which states that information stored about people cannot be approached by a third party without their knowledge. The inadequate computer storage below each of the stairs is not secure & therefore anyone within the building could access them.The Statutory duties of employers and employees relating to health, safety and welfare as commit out by the government says that the employer must explicitly provide arrangements for ensuring safe means of handling, use, storage and transport of articles and substances. All files being stored under the stairs does definitely not provide a safe means of storing documents so an alternative organisational system should be used for the companys files. The Health and Safety at Work Act 1974 also sets out to protect people at work & to protect people not at work from those who are, the files could personify a trip hazard to employees & people visiting the building, some other reason for an alternative storage system to be employed.* The offices are cleaned on a weekly basis, but all the cleaning products are kept in the canteen near the emergency exit. Control of Substances Hazardous to Health (COSHH) is the law that requires employers to control substances that are hazardous to health1 & not storing the cleaning products safely & securely if they contain any constipationful ingredients (which many cleaning products do) breaches the regulations set out. You can prevent or reduce workers exposure to hazardous substances by* finding out what the health hazards are* deciding how to prevent harm to health (risk assessment2)* providing control measures to reduce harm to health* making sure they are used * keeping all control measures in good working order* providing information, instruction and training for employees and others* providing monito ring and health watch in appropriate cases* planning for emergencies.If the cleaning products declare always been stored by the emergency exit, then the company are in breach of The prudence of Health and Safety at Work Regulations 1999 as they have failed to observe that there is a risk to its employees & have obviously failed to conduct a thorough risk assessment. With the cleaning products obstructing the emergency exit, The Regulatory Reform (Fire Safety) modulate 2005 states that clear fire instructions should be displayed in all buildings escapism routes should be clearly signposted and free from obstruction. The cleaning products being stored there are a direct violation of this & they should be removed then stored safely & securely.* The majority of photocopiers are out of action on each of the floors this means that all staff have to go to the 5th floor to get good quality copies. The Provision and Use of Work Equipment Regulations 1998 states that any equipment provi ded must be maintained and kept in good working order, the unusable photocopiers breach these regulations & must be repaired or replaced.The Manual Handling Operations Regulations 1992 state to avoid the need for employees to undertake any manual handling operations at work which involve a risk of their being injured. Under the Regulations, a suitable and sufficient risk assessment of all manual handling operations should be carried out to quantify the risks and put suitable guidance and support in place to make sure risks are kept to a minimum. The employer is also expected to train staff where necessary in the correct way to manually lift and handle objects. The employer has done neither, so to prevent accidents occurring, the employer should implement these immediately.* On your first day at the new office, one of the receptionists, who is referable to go on maternity leave in the next cardinal weeks falls down the stairs (after having done a large sum of photocopying) and bre aks her leg, her arm and her collarbone. The Manual Handling Operations Regulations 1992 (MHOR)3 requires an employer to carry out a risk assessment on all manual handling tasks that pose an injury risk. If the employer had assessed this properly, a system or alternative way of travel the photocopied documents could have been developed, or perhaps another member of staff could have taken on this responsibility. The employers duty is to avoid manual handling as far as pretty practicable if there is a possibility of injury. If this cannot be done then they must take stairs to reduce the risk of injury as far as reasonably practicable.With the lift being available but closed due to a fault, the employer is not utilizing the available mechanisms as the lift has not been repaired. This puts any employee carrying any large object(s) at risk of injury & the lift will need to be repaired with adequate alternative carrying methods for employees who are unable to do so. Also, The Workplace (Health, Safety and Welfare) Regulations 1992 says that rest facilities must be provided for pregnant women and nursing mothers, this whitethorn not be relevant to the woman falling down the stairs, however if this has not been provided for her, it could have contributed if she was tired & unable to find a place to rest or not allowed to take time to rest.
Tuesday, February 26, 2019
In order for the brain to function correctly in an effective and efficient way it relies on the financing from nerve cells that are responsible for the relay of vital information to and from the brain. This information is inevitable to succor us know how to feel, roleplay and transact depending on the different situations. and so the circuit of neurons or nerve cells develop a system where they dish out the information from cell to cell via the synapse eventually placeing to the brain which controls how we be give up and feel.This system is based on electrical and neurochemical activity performed by the brain. Presynaptic cells tucker out chemicals known as neurotransmitters into synapses, which allow an electrical or chemical suggest to pass to another(prenominal) cell. These signals eventually travel their way to the brain via the fundamental nervous system, where in turn the brain releases a message that directs the consistence on how to deal or cope with the stimul us.There are more known diseases that can influence this process causing neurological problems, amongst do drugs abuse, alcoholism and brain trauma is illnesses that are degenerative diseases that cause damage to the nerve cells which in turn leads to behavioral and psychiatric problems, one of these macrocosm Alzheimers disease (Alzheimer 1907). Alzheimers is the result of decreased brain size which occurs when a huge portion of nerve cells die and the tissue in the brain reduces in size.The detoriation and reduced levels of the nerve cells substance that nerves are not able to respond as intimately as they should be able too. This in turn causes chemical disruption which then slows dump the transmission of chemical impulses. Alzheimers affects the different areas of the brain. It causes the cortex to shrivel up which damages areas required for thinking, planning and remembering. It causes the hippocampus to in any case shrink which is required to help get to new memories .The disease also makes the ventricles (fluid filled spaces in the brain) to grow larger than normal. Scientists have discovered that patients diagnosed with Alzheimers tend to have fewer nerve cells and synapses in the brain. The brain holds abnormal clusters of proteins (plaques) which tend to build up between the nerve cells which make it harder for the synapses to perform their job of transferring messages to another cell. This means the nerve ells eventually die and develop tangles which are worm strands of protein. These tangles destroy the cell transport system by preventing nutrients and other necessary supplies travelling too other cells, therefore these cells eventually die. Due to the cells end the brain begins to shrink therefore sacrificing areas of the brain that is required for everyday life, this than leads onto behavioral problems caused by insufficient neural activity.An Alzheimer suffer will show repetitious behaviour where they constantly ask the same questi on or perform the same action continuously this is due to the damage of the brain. They will also become restless and suffer with sleep deprivation which can lead to agitation and frustration. This is all the result of change in neural activity and despite drugs being prescribed the patient will still induce anxiety and depression which leads to violent and abusive outbursts.A common behavioural symptom is also experiencing hallucinations and delusions that are frustrating for both the sufferer and their support network. These symptoms and effects of Alzheimers are all due to the disruption in neural activity which is caused by the shrinking of the brain due to little functioning of nerve cells. The effect of different areas of the brain shrinking means that they are not able to perform their job as well as a healthy brain can.
Positive Image Negative Image Effect somewhat ar living in mansions Some be living in holes This shows that while some people atomic number 18 very well off, others, standardised the refugees, have nowhere decent to live. Evert spring it blossoms a in the altogether Old passports cant do that A tree can grow but a passport cant Saw a poodle dog in a jacket fas cardinaled with a pin further they werent German Jews my dear Saying how pets get more luxuries whence them Saw fish swimming as if they were free Only ten feet away The fish have more freedom then them work of language Example Effect Use of repetition We cannot go in that respect now, my dear, my dear cannot go there now. (my dear repeated in to each one stanza) Emphasize how bad there situation is diction conveying trouble or despair Asked me politely to return next year, But where shall we go to-day my dear, where shall we go to-day? Makes us feel sympathetic to them Language about the semipolitical situati on and the behaviour of the officials The consul banged the table and said if youve got no passport youre officially dead The consul sounds cruel because hes basically utter they atomic number 18 dead even though they are alive Language about homelessness Dreamed I saw a building with a honey oil floors, a thousand floors a thousand windows and a thousand doors and not one of them was ours, my dear, not one of them was ours. Makes it sound like they are surrounded by so much shelter but they are not allowed in any of them Language about war go thousand soldiers marched to and fro. Looking for you and me, my dear, feel for you and me Ten thousand soldiers are looking for two people- All the soldiers are looking for the Jews Refugee blues- blues musicTen million souls (religious, holy, implies we are all the alike) Society is unfair on the way it treats people (some are living in mansions, some are living in holes) telamon there not anywhere close to there home, Palestin e or Germany The natural world is in a continual state of renewal, they anomic their passports and are no longer citizens They are told to wait and then come down again next year uncaring He compares the angry speeches by Hitler to he thunder in the sky The poodle and cat are treated better then the German views (they cant give the same care to their fellow human beings) Pathetic fallacy- the weather matches the mood of the song (the snow) Refugee blues is very relevant today, the refugees in England DEJECTED youve given up on life rejection and despair (dispirited, disheartened, poignant, depressing, Foreboding, mournful, despair, bitterness, resentment, anger)
Monday, February 25, 2019
Bridgford Foods is known as a sm every(prenominal), publicly traded bon ton of the food industry. Clients of Bridgford Foods have a relatively high inherent take a chance. The exertion of the said industry is subject to various dangers, such as inauspicious changes in the general economic conditions, the evolution of consumer preferences, nutritional and health-related concerns, the inspections done, including the processing simplicitys multiform in the federal, state, and local products. The liability claims of consumer products and the hazards associated with product tampering were also interpreted into c atomic number 18ful consideration.Furthermore, several recalls made were associated with the recent outbreaks of illnesses among the meat and poultry products. such greatly affected the operating results and the financial position of the friendship. In access to this, industry characteristics were related to the factors that affected the opinion of frameworks of Bridg ford Foods Corporation. Since the industry was very competitive, hurt cutting would have its related effects on the revenue. Unfortunately, Bridgford Foods was non portion of the leading industries in the country.In terms of performance, the products of the said company were not as competitive as those of the leaders in the industry. In plus to this, the company is not as profitable and as financially shelter as those of the major companies in the industry. For the year 2007, Bridgford Food had a simplification in its total sales, as compared to the other years. In a traverse issued, the company stated that, sales for the first quarter ended in January 25, 2008, and was an estimated $1,319,000. Prior to the first twelve weeks of the fiscal year, there was a ebb in the total, which was 3.1%.The industry factors result in an increased assessment of the risk material misstatement of BridgFord Foods Corporation. This led to a lower determination of perception risk and more subs tantive tests. Estimations and assumptions were particularly important in the assessment of risks for material misstatement of Johnson, Inc. The management made certain estimations and assumptions that affected the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent upon(p) assets and liabilities at the date of the financial statements.In addition to this, reported revenues and expenses during the various(prenominal) reporting periods were also given much considerations. The amounts estimated related to liabilities for workers compensation, employee healthcare and gift benefits are especially subjected. The inherent risk relating to the accuracy of an account sleep that involves a high degree of management judgment, or that is difficult to compute, is evaluated as high. More everyplace, the credit risk of the company was diversified across a huge range clients and geographic regions.Losses incurred imputable to credit risks have latterly been immaterial, wi th the client maintaining the cash symmetrys at financial institutions. At times, these clients exceed the amounts insured by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation of $100 zillion per institution. However, the clients have significant amounts receivable amounts with few of the well known clients, although historically secure, could also be subject to material risk when the operations of these clients pose to deteriorate.Regardless(prenominal) of such dilemma, the members of the Bridgford family can still exercise significant control over the company. This is due to the fact that the family owns approximately 77% in stocks of the company, fashioning them own more than trio fourths of the whole company. On top of this, three members of the Bridgford family were members of the Board of Directors. This gives the members of the Bridgford family the ability to exert substantial influence and power over the management and affairs of the company.This include matters requiring the action of shareholders. the amendment to by-laws, the election and removal of directors, coalition proposals, consolidation or sale of all or substantially all of the assets and other corporate transactions. The Bridgford family members who own majority of the stocks dominate in the conclusiveness making of the company. This factor led to a high risk assessment of material misstatement fore there were no reviews regarding important decisions and actions taken.However, these should be taken in the best interest of the company and its stockholders. The inherent limitations included the realities of im veracious judgments and decision makings, including the breakdowns that can occur due to simple errors and mistakes. Additionally, controls can be circumvented by the individual acts of some people, by collusion of two or more people, or by management override of the control. All the supra factors increased inherent risk for a particular account balance assertion, making the militar y rating relatively high.In the audit planning stage, where the evaluation of inherent risk for an account balance assertion is high, auditors regard this as a significant risk requiring special audit attention. The control risk of Bridgford foods is low. The client maintains and evaluates a system of inner accounting controls, and a broadcast of inner(a) auditing designed to provide reasonable assurance. In so doing, the companys assets are protected and transactions were performed in accordance with the proper authorization, and were recorded accordingly.This system of internal accounting control is continually reviewed and modify in response to evolving business conditions and operations and to recommendations made by the freelance registered public accounting firm and internal auditor. The client also has an open a code of conduct. Furthermore, the audit committee is composed of independent directors who are not officers or employees of the client, and do not have other rela tionships that spoil independence. The audit committees also employ two financial experts.They are sound in overseeing the quality of controls and the management of fraud. From those mentioned, I believe that the accounting and internal control systems provide reasonable assurance that assets are safeguarded and financial selective information is reliable, with the overall control risk low. In general, the design and implementation of internal control are considered effective. The increase in the risk of material misstatement due to these factors will result in a lower determination of detection risk and an increase in the scope of the auditors work.Pre-audit elaboration risk is significantly and positively associated with the estimated level of discretionary accruals reported in audited financial statements. As high levels of discretionary accruals have been shown to be associated with higher risk of post-audit litigation, it appears that rather than taking actions that result in higher-risk clients reporting less aggressive discretionary accruals, auditors instead are accepting a higher post-audit risk for these clients.
The Solitary Reaper is single of William Wordsworths most noted post-Lyrical Ballads lyrics. It describes the poets delight in a young womans drab song in an unknown language. A highland girl is singing a melancholy song as she wings a sickle and reaps grain. The song is carried through the hills and valleys and looks to echo all around. To the poet the song seems sweeter rase than the song of Nightingale. He does not want any iodine to disturb the enchanting melodic melody emanating from her. The tone of this poem is pleasant and it is a poem of laudation on the natural beauty of countryside as wholesome as the relaxed carriage of the rural people. Stylistic plays a very import rule in any writing, which fully helps express the springs feeling and pee an unexpected effect. This article discusses the language of this poem from syntax, phonology and graphology, semantics, lexical, language practice and passage. 1. Syntax(1) Parallelisms refers to the very(prenominal) s tructure is repeated two or to a greater extent than two times. It underside unwrap some esthetic efforts patterned and in rhyme, good to read. In Stanza2, Among Arabian sandsAmong the farthest Hebrides mark the frugal girls special phonate, which shows that the poet was impressed by the girls beautiful voice. (2) Inverted sentences be to change the normal word to produce some emphatic effect. No Nightingale did ever chaunt, A voice so thrilling neer was hear here is to emphasize that the solitary reapers voice is unique. In addition, this structure screwing keep the balance of sentence. (3)Rhetorical questions ar to use the form of a question in order to express a strong sense or to emphasize a particular aspect. Will no one insure me what she sings Or is it some more humble lay, famillar matter of right away? That has been, and may be again? Since the poet couldnt understand what the girl was singing, it seems that he asked these questions to himself. However, they are actually asked to the readers. Thus, the poet used the rhetorical question to connect with the readers by attracting their attention making them participate in his thinking. In addition, there are no exact answers to the question, which is thought provoking and emphasize the unique and immensity of the voice. 2. Phonology(1) Sound pattering can achieve a sense of cycle and harmonious and connective effect. Assonance refers to the use of the same, or related, vowel sounds in successive nomenclature and consonance refers to the repletion of the cultivation consonants of the stressed row at the end of the lines. For example Sorrow, loss or pain, this example of the same sound /o/, single, reaping, singing, sing, nightingale, the repeating of /ing/, and lifelessness, hill in I listened, motionless and still and And, as I attach up the hill, all this stimulate a harmonious effect and sounds good. (2) Rhythm refers to a rhyme end (pattern) formed by stresses perceived as peaks of prominence.This poem consists of four stanzas, the starting time and fourth stanzas follow strictly the thyme pattern ABABCCDD, while the second and triplet stanzas are in the pattern of ABCBDDEE. Every stanza has end rhyme in this poem. For example, the end rhyme in the first stanza is /t/ /s/ /t/ /s/ /d/ /d/ /s/ /s/. (3) Punctuation tag are mainly used for special stylistic effects or rhetorical purposes. This poem adopts exclamation marks, for example Yon solitary highland(prenominal) lass Stop here, or gently pass to expressing special feelings of splendor of the girls voice elan. Besides, Will no one tell me what she sings? Perhaps the plaintive numbers flow for old, unhappy, far-off things , the usage of the dash here is to give the various guess on the question. 3. Semantics(1) Reference operator that some units of language can be explained by referring to some separate elements in the above or in the text below. And the author uses anaphora, one kind of reference, points above in this poem. her and she appearing in first and last stanza refers to the reaper in the title. This kind of reference can avoid repetition or burdensome, and looks simple of a language. (2) Conjunction refers to the elements which connect the clauses and sentences in a text, such words as, and, or etc. And battles long ago, Or is it some more humble lay, And, as I mounted up the hill It is used to show the detailed relations with apiece parts and this can show the author pleasant feeling some the song sang by the highland girl. 4. Lexical(1) Many of the words (images) chosen are poetic or obsolete words which are not frequently used in our daily life. For example, Behold(see), yonder(German jene), vale (valley), chaunt(sing), numbers(lines), lay(song). These archaic words show that it is of prescribed style. (2) The word overflow is quite impressive. Using this word, the sounds of nature sung verboten by the solitary girl are so vivid that readers seem to visualize the smooth movement of the notes within the valley as well as to hear the song. The poet transferred the sense of hearing into visual and tactile feelings by using this word 5. LanguageThe poet mainly use Simile and parity in the this poem. No Nightingale did ever chaunt more welcome notes to fatigue bands A voice so thrilling neer was heard in springtime from the Cuckoo bird, breaking the silence of the seas The poet compared the girls singing to a Nightingale and Cuckoo bird. The metaphor and the comparison mingled with the voice of the girl and that of the Nightingale and Cukoo at once points to her commonness and exclusiveness. It in like manner underlines the power and purity of the voice of the solitary girl. 6. PassageAt the beginning, the poet encountered a solitary Scottish rustic girl who was reaping and singing a melancholy song which had a charm for him. And then the poet made two comparisons of the stress to the sweet voice of a nightingale and cuckoo-bird. He sta ted that the girls song was far more beautiful than them. At the same time, the poet began speculating the content of the song which was sung in Scotwhether it was about some old, execrable matters or some sufferings of present time. In the end the poet made a conclusion in which he emphasized the lingering effect of the music on him. In conclusion, this poem, The Solitary Reaper, reflects many sides of stylistics, including syntax (parallelisms, anatropous sentences and rhetorical questions), phonology (sound pattering, rhythm, and punctuation mark), semantics (reference, conjunction), lexical (images), and language. It fully helps express the authors feeling and create an unexpected effect. In a word, stylistics can be almost found and used in every kinds of writing.
Sunday, February 24, 2019
Analyzing the fall of two GiantsThis case results in the make of Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 and relevant to the Securities and Exchange Commission. Also, it is related to SAS 103Auditing, Quality Control, and Independence Standards and Rules.1 What were the dividing line venture Enron faced, and how did those risks change magnitude the likelihood if material misstatements in Enrons financial statements?The melodic phrase risks Enron faced are as followingUsing hard business modelextensive employ supernumerary purpose entitiesusing untraditional ventures to expand business rapidlylimitations in GAAPThe multiplex business model used in Enron lead overstate its taxation while not tell on the exact value of debt. Numbers of special purpose entities are used to keep debt off the books. The untraditional ventures odourise the business expansion rapidly and risky. Also, the limitation of GAAP makes it possible that focusing took advantages of complex standards to hide the actu al economic substance. All of these above increase the likelihood of material misstatements in Enrons financial statements.2 (a) What are the responsibilities of a companys jury of directors? (b) Could the board of directors at Enronespecially the study committeehave prevented the fall of Enron? (c) Should they have known most the risks and seeming(a) lack of independence with Enrons SPEs? What should they have done about it? The responsibilities of a companys board of directors include Protect the shareholders assets and provide a return on investment Make important decisions that affect shareholders (dividends) ensconce on which executives to hire / fireThe fall of Enron could have been prevented by the board of directors. The board should responsible for the companys financial reports. However, they are failed to disclose the off books liabilities to the public, which ledthe Enron fall. What is more, the board and the audit committee do not question any of the high risk tra nsactions. They should have known about the risks and apparent lack of independence with Enrons SPEs. They should recognize that the high risk transactions with SPE will have huge effects on Enron. Meanwhile, they should require SPE to disclosure financials properly.4 What are the auditor independence issues surrounding the provision of extraneous auditing services, internal auditing services, and trouble consulting services for the same client? Develop arguments for wherefore auditors should be allowed to per design these services for the same client. Develop separate arguments for why auditors should not be allowed to perform non-audit services for their audit clients. What is your view, and why? Auditors should not be allowed to perform non-audit services for their audit clients, because auditors need to be independence.If an auditor provide management consulting services for his audit client, he is just audit what he have done, which ,I think, is meaningless. On the contrary , some people may nurse that auditors should be allowed to perform their services for the same client. First, choosing one firm to do all of these services can save a great take away of money. Second, the auditors will much more familiar with the clients business and its industry, which make their work efficient.6 Enron and Andersen suffered severe consequences because of their perceived lack of integrity and dishonored reputations. In fact, some people believe the fall of Enron occurred because of a form of run on the bank. Some argue that Andersen experienced a resembling run on the bank as many overstep clients quickly dropped the firm in the wake of Enrons collapse. Is the run on the bank similitude valid for both firms? Why or why not? Yes, I think the run on the bank analogy valid for both firms. The fraud of Enrons financials leads a collapse of investor, customer, and vocation partner confidence.Its stocks experience a sharp slump. Meanwhile, Standard & Poors re-class ify Enrons stocks as junk bonds, making almost every shareowner feel unsafe. The price drops to $0.26 per share in couple of days. Even worse, debts holders draw to call the loans because of the diminished stock price, which lead the collapse of Enron directly. Andersen experiences a similar situation. The damaged reputation of Andersen resultsin losing many top clients and partnerships oversea.9 What has been done, and what more do you believe should be done to restore the public trustingness in the auditing profession and in the nations financial reporting arrangement? The Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 is a good way to restore the public trust in the auditing profession and financial report. The Act required top management to certify the accuracy of financial information individually, and increase the independence of outdoor(a) auditors. As the most severe act in history ever, I believe SOX can help to restore the public trust.
It was October. The trees of the cemetery had turned a decayed br consume, and a c overage breeze had whistled in, replacing the stifling catch fire of the Virginia summer. Not that I much felt it. As a vampire, my ashes registered only the temperature of my next victim, warmed by the anticipation of her hot line of reasoning coiling finished my veins.My next victim was only a a few(prenominal) feet away a chestnut-haired girl who was currently climbing all over the chip in out of the Hartnett estate, which ran adjacent to the cemetery. clementine tree Haverford, whatever are you doing out of bed so late? My playful demeanor was at odds with the hot, heavy hungriness coursing through me. clementine was not supposed to be here, further Matt Hartnett had of all time been sweet on her. And even though Clementine was engaged to Randall Haverford, her Charleston-based cousin, it was clear the feeling was mutual. She was already playing a severe game. Little did she know it was about to turn deadly.Clementine squinted into the darkness. I could sound out from her heavy-lidded expression and wine-stained teeth that shed had a long night. Stefan Salvatore? she gasped. tho youre dead.I took a step closer to her. Am I, now?Yes, I accompanied your funeral. She cocked her head to the side. She didnt seem too concerned, though. She was practically sleepwalking, heady from sips of wine and stolen kisses. be you a dream?No, not a dream, I said huskily.I grasped her by the shoulders and pulled her close to me. She fell against my chest, and the loud drum of her heartbeat alter my ears. She smelled of jasmine, honorable as she had last summer when my muckle had grazed the bodice of her dress while we vie unmatchable of Damons kissing games under the Wickery Bridge.I ran one finger along her cheek. Clementine had been my first crush, and Id often wondered what it would feel same to hold her wish well this. I put my lips to her ear. Im more wish a nightmar e.Before she could make a sound, I sank my teeth straight into her jugular vein, sighing when the first stream hit my mouth. Unlike what her name might suggest, Clementines tune wasnt nearly as sweet as Id imagined. Instead it tasted smoky and bitter, like coffee burn over a hot stove. Still, I drank deeply, gulp her down, until she stopped groaning and her pulse slowed to a whisper. She went limp in my arms, and the fire that burned in my veins and my belly was quenched. All week Id been hunting at my leisure, having observe that my body required two nourishments a day. Mostly I just listened to the vital fluid coursing through the bodies of the residents of Mystic Falls, fascinated by how easily I could take it from them. When I did attack, Id done so carefully, feeding on guests at the boardinghouse or taking one of the soldiers up by Leestown. Clementine would be my first victim whod once been a champthe first victim the people of Mystic Falls would miss.Disengaging my te eth from her neck, I licked my lips, allowing my tongue to savor the spot of wet product line at the corner of my mouth. Then I dragged her out of the cemetery and rear end to the quarry where my brother, Damon, and I had been staying since wed been turned.The sun was just creeping over the horizon, and Damon was sitting listlessly at the edge of the water, glancing into its depths as if they held the secret to the universe. Hed been like that every day since wed woken up as vampires seven geezerhood earlier, mourning the loss of Katherine, the vampire whod made us into what we are now. though she had turned me into a powerful creature, I celebrated her death, unlike my brother. She had played me for a fool, and the memory of her reminded me of how vulnerable Id once been.As I watched Damon, Clementine moaned in my arms, one eye fluttering sensory(a). Were it not for the blood flow onto the blue lace neckline of her wrinkled, blue tulle dress, it would seem as if she were merel y in slumber.Shhh, I murmured, tucking a few loose strands of hair behind her ear. A voice somewhere in my mind told me that I should feel mourning over taking her life, save I felt nothing at all. Instead, I readjusted her in my arms, tossing her over my shoulder, as if she were simply a terminate of oats, and walked to the edge of the water.Brother. I unceremoniously dumped Clementines nearly lifeless body at his feet. Damon shook his head and said, No. His lips had a chalky white texture. birth vessels twisted darkly on his face they looked like cracks in marble. In the weak morning light, he looked like one of the broken statues in the cemetery.You must drink I said roughly, pushing him down, surprised at my own strength. His nostrils flared. yet just as it was to mine, the smell of her blood was foolhardy to his weary body, and soon his lips met her skin in spite of his protestations. He began to drink, behind at first, then lapped up the liquid as though he were a horse desperate for water.Why do you keep do me do this? he asked plaintively, wiping his mouth with the approve of his hand and wincing.You need to think your strength. I prodded Clementine with the tip of my dirt-caked boot. She groaned softly, somehow still alive. For now, at least. But her life was in my hands. The realization trilled through me, as though my entire being were on fire. Thisthe hunt, the conquests, the reward of the pleasurable sleepiness that always followed a feedingmade eternity stand before us as an endless adventure. Why couldnt Damon understand?This isnt strength. Its weakness, Damon hissed, rising to his feet. Its hell on Earth, and nothing could be worse.Nothing? Would you rather be dead, like acquire? I shook my head incredulously. You have a second chance.I never asked for it, Damon said sharply. I never asked for any of this. All I wanted wasKatherine. Shes gone, so kill me now and be done with it. Damon turn over me a jagged oak branch. Here, he said, standing with his arms open wide, his chest exposed. Just one stroke to his heart and hed have his wish. Memories flashed through my mind of Katherine, her soft, dark curls, her fangs bright in the moonlight, her head arched back before she bit into my neck, her ever-present lapis lazuli pendant that sat in the hollow of her neck. I now understood why shed killed my fiance, Rosalyn, why shed compelled me and Damon, why she used her beauty and innocent visage to make people want to trust and protect her. It was her nature. And now it was ours. But rather of accepting it as a gift, as I had, Damon seemed to think it was a curse.I cracked the branch over my knee and threw the shards into the river. No, I said. though Id never admit it aloud, the thought of living forever without a friend in the world frightened me. I wanted Damon and I to mulct to be vampires together.No? Damon repeated, his eyes snapping open. Youre man enough to murder an old flame, but not your brother? He shoved me to the ground. He loomed above me, his own fangs bared, then spit on my neck.Dont embarrass yourself, I said, scrambling to my feet. He was strong, but I was far stronger, thanks to my regular feedings. And dont fool yourself into thinking Katherine love you, I growled. She loved her Power, and she loved what she could make us do for her. But she never loved us.Damons eyes blazed. He rushed toward me with the speed of a galloping horse. His shoulder, hard as stone, plowed into me, throwing me back into a tree. The trunk scatter with a loud crack. She lovedme.Then why did she turn me, too? I challenged, rolling to my feet as I rebuffed his next blow.The words had their desired effect. Damons shoulders sagged, and he staggered backward. Fine. Ill just do it myself, he murmured, grabbing another stick and ladder the sharp end along his chest.I slapped the stake out of his hand and twisted his arms behind his back. You are my brothermy flesh and blood. So long as I stay alive, so shall you. Now, come. I pushed him toward the woods. bring forth where? Damon asked listlessly, allowing me to drag him along.To the cemetery, I answered. We have a funeral to attend.Damons eyes registered a gradual spark of interest. Whose?Fathers. Dont you want to say good-bye to the man who killed us?
Saturday, February 23, 2019
Identify Old study, bagger, Clover, Benjamin and Mollie. Old Major was an old pig. He began the whole idea of the revolution. Boxer was a commodious and strong horse, not very smart but was nice. Clover the female person horse she is Boxers faithful companion. Benjamin was a donkey, the oldest wight on the farm. He was skeptical, cynical, and never laughed. Mollie was foolish and liked sugar and ribbons. 2. For what intent did Major call the meeting of the animals? He wanted to tell them nearly his dreams of a happier time for animals, a time when the animals can live in concert and call for a much better life without Man. 3.After they vote and finalize rats are comrades, Major summarizes his points for the animals to remember. What are they? rough(prenominal) goes upon two legs is an enemy. Whatever goes upon quaternary legs, or has wings, is a friend. 4. What is Beasts of England? For what does it stand? Beasts of England is the song of the revolution. It stands for the h opes and dreams of the animals for having a better life. 5. wherefore did the pigs get the job of teaching and organizing? They were smartest of the farm. 6. Identify sweet sand verbena, nap, Squealer and Moses. nap was not much of a talker but had a reputation for acquire his own way.Snowball was quicker in his speech , but was not considered to consecrate the same depth of character. Squealer was a good talker. Moses was a correct raven who told the animals about Sugarcandy Mountain. 7. What actually brought about the rebellion? The animals were hungry and stony-broke in to get food. When Jones tried to stop them, they didnt listen. 8. What were the Seven Commandments? 1. Whatever goes upon two legs is an enemy. 2. Whatever goes upon four legs, or has wings, is a friend. 3. No animal shall wear clothes. 4. No animal shall sleep in a bed. 5. No animal shall drink alcohol. 6. No animal shall kill any separate animal. 7.All animals are equal. 9. Who gained leadership of the an imals? why? The pigs gained leadership because they were the smartest and showed more leadership. 10. Describe the animals signal. The flag was green for the green fields of England. It had a white hoof and snout on it. 11. What happened to the milk and apples? How did Squealer rationalize that? The pigs were eating the milk and apples. They employ it for brain food. Chapters 4 6 1. What was the Battle of the Cowshed? Jones and the other farmers came with sticks and guns to take the farm. Snowball knew it was going to happen. 2. What was Snowballs bureau in the Battle of the Cowshed?Snowballs role was one of leadership. He bravely fought with the animals. 3. Describe the relationship between short sleep and Snowball. forty winks and Snowball al slipway disagree. 4. What pay clear up divided the animals? Which pig was for and which was against? The topic of building the windmill divided the animals. catnap was against it Snowball wanted it. 5. How did Napoleon get rid of Sn owball and gain full control of the animals? He had secretly been raising the nine puppies as guard dogs for himself. The dogs ran Snowball off the farm. 6. What changes did Napoleon make first? He ruled that choices would be make by the pigs. 7.How did Squealer justify Napoleons take-over to the others? He said that Napoleon had interpreted on extra responsibility, that he wouldnt want the animals to make the wrong decisions, and that faithfulness and obedience were more important than bravery, so Napoleon was better. 8. What two maxims did Boxer adopt? Napoleon is always right. I will work harder. 9. wherefore did Napoleon in fact change his mind and decide to have the animals build the windmill? If the animals were busy on a project, they would have little time and energy to think about how miserable their lives were and would be therefrom less likely to revolt against his authority. 0. For what purpose did Napoleon begin commerce? He wanted to get money to buy the items t he animals needed. 11. Why did the pigs give voice they had to move into the house? They needed a quiet place to work. 12. Who did Napoleon blame for the windmill disaster? Why? He blamed Snowball. Chapters 7 8 1. Why did the hens have to give up their eggs? Napoleon needed to sell to get money for food for the animals. 2. How has Snowballs role been changed by the end of Chapter 6? Napoleon and Squealer have convinced the animals that Snowball had been in with the humans against the animals from the start. 3.Why did Napoleon begin executing animals? He exist the animals so they wouldnt rebel against him. 4. Whom did Boxer blame for the executions? What was his solution? He said, It must be due to some fault in ourselves. 5. Why did the animals sing the Beasts of England song slowly and mournfully as they were gathered on the knoll? Life on the farm was not as they had hoped it would be when the revolution began. 6. Why was the singing of Beasts of England banned? Napoleon said that it was no longer needed because the revolution was over, but the real reason was because it reminded the animals of the revolution. 7.In what ways has Napoleon set himself apart from the other animals? He had titles like Our Leader, beau Napoleon , also because he lived separately. 8. How did Frederick cheat Napoleon? The bank notes with which he paid Napoleon for timber were forged. 9. What moved the animals to attack Frederick and his men at the Battle of the Windmill? The men blew up the animals windmill. 10. Why was Comrade Napoleon dying? The pigs had found the farmers whiskey, and Napoleon drank a lot. Chapters 9 10 1. What especial(a) treatment did pigs and piglets get? They received a special education, the piglets couldnt animate with other animals. . What happened to Boxer? Boxer was seriously injured. Napoleon said he would send boxer to the hospital but he sold him instead. 3. The animals on the farm worked hard. What was their consolation? Their consolation was that they were not working for man. 4. What was Clover galvanize to discover? She axiom a pig walking on its hinder(prenominal) legs. 5. What commandment took the place of the Seven Commandments? All animals are equal, but some animals are more equal than others. 6. What did the other animals see when they looked in to the farmhouse? They saw the pigs in helpingthe humans.
The orbit has, also, acted as a mint for a major part of its history. From archaeological dapple of view the district of B beilly is very rich. The extensive remains of Ahichhatra, the pileus town of Northern Panchala have been discovered near Ramnagar village of Aonla Tehsil in the district. It was during the first excavations at Ahichhatra (194044) that the painted grey ware, associated with the advent of the Aryans in Ganga Yamuna Valley, was accepted for the first time in the earliest levels of the site.Nearly five railyard coins belonging to periods earlier than that of Guptas have been yielded from Ahichhatra. It has also been one of the richest sites in India from the point of view of the total yield of terracotta. Some of the masterpieces of Indian terracotta art are from Ahichhatra. In fact the classification made of the terracotta human figurines from Ahichhatra on cubic yard of style and to some extent stratigraphy became a model for determining the stratigraphy of consequent excavations at other sites in the Ganga Valley.On the basis of the existing material, the archeology of the region helps us to get an idea of the cultural sequence from the runner of the 2nd millennium BC up to the 11th c. AD. Some old-fashioned mounds in the district have also been discovered by the Deptt. of antediluvian patriarch History and culture, Rohilkhand University, at Tihar-Khera (Fatehganj West), Pachaumi, Rahtuia, Kadarganj and Sainthal. 2